Reactions and Periodicity 87 in Visual C#

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Reactions and Periodicity 87
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Bases are proton acceptors (electron-pair donors) Coordinate covalent bonds are covalent bonds in which one atom furnishes both of the electrons for the bond Strong acids and bases completely ionize/dissociate, and weak acids and bases only partially ionize/dissociate Know the strong acids and bases Acids react with bases to form a salt and usually water in a neutralization reaction Many hydrides react with water to form the hydroxide ion and hydrogen gas A titration is a laboratory procedure for determining the concentration of an unknown solution using a solution of known concentration The equivalence point of an acid base titration is the point at which the moles of + H from the acid equals the moles of OH from the base The endpoint is the point at which the indicator changes color, indicating the equivalence point A complex ion is composed of a metal ion (Lewis acid) covalently bonded to two or more molecules or anions called ligands (Lewis base) The coordination number (usually 2, 4, or 6) is the number of donor atoms that can surround a metal ion in a complex
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CHAPTER
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Stoichiometry
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IN THIS CHAPTER Summary: The previous chapter on chemical reactions discussed reactants and products in terms of individual atoms and molecules But an industrial chemist is not interested in the number of molecules being produced; she or he is interested in kilograms or pounds or tons of products being formed per hour or day How many kilograms of reactants will it take How many kilograms of products will be formed These are the questions of interest A production chemist is interested primarily in the macroscopic world, not the microscopic one of atoms and molecules Even a chemistry student working in the laboratory will not be weighing out individual atoms and molecules, but large numbers of them in grams There must be a way to bridge the gap between the microscopic world of individual atoms and molecules, and the macroscopic world of grams and kilograms There is it is called the mole concept, and it is one of the central concepts in the world of chemistry
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Keywords and Equations
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Avogadro s number = 6022 1023 mol 1 Molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution n = moles
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m = mass M = molar mass
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Stoichiometry 89
Moles and Molar Mass
The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as atoms in exactly 12 grams of carbon-12 This number of particles (atoms or molecules or 23 ions) per mole is called Avogadro s number and is numerically equal to 6022 10 particles The mole is simply a term that represents a certain number of particles, like a dozen or a pair That relates moles to the microscopic world, but what about the macroscopic world The mole also represents a certain mass of a chemical substance That mass is the substance s atomic or molecular mass expressed in grams In 5, the Basics chapter, we described the atomic mass of an element in terms of atomic mass units (amu) This was the mass associated with an individual atom Then we described how one could calculate the mass of a compound by simply adding together the masses, in amu, of the individual elements in the compound This is still the case, but at the macroscopic level the unit of grams is used to represent the quantity of a mole Thus, the following relationships apply:
23 6022 10 particles = 1 mol
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= atomic (molecular, formula) mass in grams The mass in grams of one mole of a substance is the molar mass The relationship above gives a way of converting from grams to moles to particles, and vice versa If you have any one of the three quantities, you can calculate the other two This becomes extremely useful in working with chemical equations, as we will see later, because the coefficients in the balanced chemical equation are not only the number of individual atoms or molecules at the microscopic level, but also the number of moles at the macroscopic level 25 How many moles are present in 120 10 silver atoms Answer: 1mol Ag atoms (120 1025 Ag atoms) = 199 mol Ag 23 6022 10 Ag atoms
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