Thermodynamics 133 in C#.NET

Decoding Data Matrix in C#.NET Thermodynamics 133

Thermodynamics 133
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9 Under standard conditions calcium metal reacts readily with chlorine gas What conclusions may be drawn from this fact (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) Keq < 1 and G > 0 Keq > 1 and G = 0 Keq < 1 and G < 0 Keq > 1 and G < 0 Keq > 1 and G > 0
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(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)
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0 kJ 485 kJ 485 kJ 464 kJ 443 kJ
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14 What is the energy required to convert a gaseous atom, in the ground state, to a gaseous cation (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) ionization energy kinetic energy activation energy lattice energy free energy
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10 Which of the following combinations is true when sodium chloride melts (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) H > 0 and S > 0 H = 0 and S > 0 H > 0 and S < 0 H < 0 and S < 0 H < 0 and S > 0
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15 Which of the following reactions would be accompanied by the greatest decrease in entropy (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) 2 NH3(g) C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(g) 2 Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2 NaCl(s) 2 KClO3(s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)
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11 Which of the following reactions have a negative entropy change I 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(l) II 2 NH3(g) N2(g) + 3 H2(g) III Ca(s) + Cl2(g) CaCl2(s) (A) II only (B) I only (C) I, II, and III (D) III only (E) I and III 12 A certain reaction is non-spontaneous under standard conditions, but becomes spontaneous at higher temperatures What conclusions may be drawn under standard conditions (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) H < 0, S > 0, and G > 0 H > 0, S < 0, and G > 0 H > 0, S > 0, and G > 0 H < 0, S < 0, and G > 0 H > 0, S > 0, and G = 0
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16 CO(g) + 2 H2(g) CH3OH(g) H = 91kJ Determine H for the above reaction if CH3OH(l) were formed in the above reaction instead of CH3OH(g) The H of vaporization for CH3OH is 37 kJ/mol (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) 128 kJ 54 kJ +128 kJ +54 kJ 37 kJ
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13 2 H2(g) + O2(g) 2 H2O(g) From the table below, determine the enthalpy change for the above reaction
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AVERAGE BOND ENERGY (kJ/mol)
17 A solution is prepared by dissolving solid ammonium nitrate, NH4NO3, in water The initial temperature of the water was 25 C, but after the solid had dissolved, the temperature had fallen to 20 C What conclusions may be made about H and S (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) H < 0 H > 0 H > 0 H < 0 H = 0 S > 0 S > 0 S < 0 S < 0 S > 0
BOND
H H O=O H O
436 499 464
134 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
U Answers and Explanations
1 D You may wish to review the Kinetics chapter if you have forgotten what the activation energy is 2 A The free energy is the minimum energy required for a non-spontaneous reaction and the maximum energy available for a spontaneous reaction 3 C This is a basic postulate of kinetic molecular theory 4 B This is the reverse of the lattice energy definition 5 D 2[C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g)] 2 CO2(g) + H2O(l) C2H2(g) + (5/2) O2(g) 2 C(s) + H2(g) C2H2(g) 2( 3935 kJ) ( 12998 kJ) 2270 kJ H2(g) + (1/2) O2(g) H2O(l) 2858 kJ greatest increase in the number of moles of liquid would yield the greatest increase 9 D If the reaction occurs readily, it must be spontaneous Spontaneous reactions require G < 0 A negative free energy leads to a large K (> 1) 10 A Heat is required to melt something ( H > 0) A transformation from a solid to a liquid gives an increase in entropy ( S ) 11 E Equations I and III both have an overall decrease in the amount of gas (high entropy) present Equation II produces more gas (increases entropy) 12 C Nonspontaneous G > 0 Since the reaction becomes spontaneous, the sign must change Recalling: G = H T S The sign change at higher temperature means that the entropy term (with S > 0) must become more negative than the enthalpy term ( H > 0) 13 C [2(436 kJ) + 499 kJ] {2[2(464 kJ)]} = 485 kJ 14 A This is the definition of ionization energy 15 A The reaction that produces the most gas will have the greatest increase in entropy; the one losing the most gas would have the greatest decrease
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