U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High in C#

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152 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
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O :: N :: C: Number of valence electrons Number of nonbonding electrons 1/2 Number of bonding electrons Formal Charges 6 4 2 0 5 4 0 4 4 2 +1 2
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O :: C :: N: 6 4 2 0 4 0 4 0 5 4 2 1
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The formal charges make the OCN arrangement the better choice
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Molecular Geometry VSEPR
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The shape of a molecule has quite a bit to do with its reactivity This is especially true in biochemical processes, where slight changes in shape in three-dimensional space might make a certain molecule inactive or cause an adverse side effect One way to predict the shape of molecules is the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory The basic idea behind this theory is that the valence electron pairs surrounding a central atom, whether involved in bonding or not, will try to move as far away from each other as possible to minimize the repulsion between the like charges Two geometries can be determined; the electron-group geometry, in which all electron pairs surrounding a nucleus are considered, and molecular geometry, in which the nonbonding electrons become invisible and only the geometry of the atomic nuclei are considered For the purposes of geometry, double and triple bonds count the same as single bonds To determine the geometry:
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KEY IDEA
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1 Write the Lewis electron-dot formula of the compound 2 Determine the number of electron-pair groups surrounding the central atom(s) Remember that double and triple bonds are treated as a single group 3 Determine the geometric shape that maximizes the distance between the electron groups This is the geometry of the electron groups 4 Mentally allow the nonbonding electrons to become invisible They are still there and are still repelling the other electron pairs, but we don t see them The molecular geometry is determined by the remaining arrangement of atoms (as determined by the bonding electron groups) around the central atom Figure 115 shows the electron-group and molecular geometry for two to six electron pairs For example, let s determine the electron-group and molecular geometry of carbon dioxide, CO2, and water, H2O At first glance, one might imagine that the geometry of these two compounds would be similar, since both have a central atom with two groups attached Let s see if that is true First, write the Lewis structure of each Figure 116 shows the Lewis structures of these compounds Next, determine the electron-group geometry of each For carbon dioxide, there are two electron groups around the carbon, so it would be linear For water, there are four electron pairs around the oxygen two bonding and two nonbonding electron pairs so the electron-group geometry would be tetrahedral Finally, mentally allow the nonbonding electron pairs to become invisible and describe what is left in terms of the molecular geometry For carbon dioxide, all groups are involved in bonding so the molecular geometry is also linear However, water has two nonbonding pairs of electrons so the remaining bonding electron pairs (and hydrogen nuclei) are in a bent arrangement
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Bonding 153
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Total Electron Pairs 2 Linear
B B A B
ElectronGroup Geometry
Bonding Pairs 2
Nonbonding Pairs (Lone Pairs) 0
B A B
Molecular Geometry Linear
3 3 Trigonal planar
Trigonal planar
Bent
Tetrahedral 4 Tetrahedral 4 0
A B B B
Trigonal pyramidal
B B B
Bent
5 Trigonal bipyramidal
A B B B B
Trigonal bipyramidal
A B B B
Irregular tetrahedral (see-saw)
A B B
T-shaped
A B B B A B B B B
Linear
Octahedral
Octahedral
B A B
Square pyramidal
Square planar
Electron-group and molecular geometry
154 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
H O C O O H
Carbon Dioxide
Water
Lewis structures of carbon dioxide and water
This determination of the molecular geometry of carbon dioxide and water also accounts for the fact that carbon dioxide does not possess a dipole and water has one, even though both are composed of polar covalent bonds Carbon dioxide, because of its linear shape, has partial negative charges at both ends and a partial charge in the middle To possess a dipole, one end of the molecule must have a positive charge and the other a negative end Water, because of its bent shape, satisfies this requirement Carbon dioxide does not
Valence Bond Theory
The VSEPR theory is only one way in which the molecular geometry of molecules may be determined Another way involves the valence bond theory The valence bond theory describes covalent bonding as the mixing of atomic orbitals to form a new kind of orbital, a hybrid orbital Hybrid orbitals are atomic orbitals formed as a result of mixing the atomic orbitals of the atoms involved in the covalent bond The number of hybrid orbitals formed is the same as the number of atomic orbitals mixed, and the type of hybrid orbital formed depends on the types of atomic orbital mixed Figure 117 shows the hybrid orbitals resulting from the mixing of s, p, and d orbitals
Trigonal planar one s two p three sp2 one p Trigonal bipyramidal one s three p one d five sp3d four d
Linear Atomic orbitals mixed Hybrid orbitals formed Unhybridized orbitals remaining one s one p two sp two p
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