Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces 169 in C#

Recognize Data Matrix in C# Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces 169

Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces 169
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and those attractive forces between the liquid and the tube wall The stronger the attraction between the liquid and the tube, the higher the level will be Liquids that have weak attractions to the walls, like mercury in a glass tube, have a low capillary action Liquids like water in a glass tube have strong attractions to the walls and will have a high capillary action As we have noted before, water, because of its stronger intermolecular forces (hydrogen bonding) has some very unusual properties It will dissolve a great number of substances, both ionic and polar covalent, because of its polarity and ability to form hydrogen bonds It is sometimes called the universal solvent It has a high heat capacity, the heat absorbed to cause the temperature to rise, and a high heat of vaporization, the heat needed to transform the liquid into a gas Both of these thermal properties are due to the strong hydrogen bonding between the water molecules Water has a high surface tension for the same reason The fact that the solid form of water (ice) is less dense than liquid water is because water molecules in ice are held in a rigid, open, crystalline framework by the hydrogen bonds As the ice starts melting, the crystal structure breaks and water molecules fill the holes in the structure, increasing the density The density reaches a maximum at around 4 C; then the increasing kinetic energy of the particles causes the density to begin to decrease
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The Solid State
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At the macroscopic level a solid is defined as a substance that has both a definite volume and a definite shape At the microscopic level, solids may be one of two types amorphous or crystalline Amorphous solids lack extensive ordering of the particles There is a lack of regularity of the structure There may be small regions of order separated by large areas of disordered particles They resemble liquids more than solids in this characteristic Amorphous solids have no distinct, melting point They simply get softer and softer as the temperature rises, leading to a decrease in viscosity Glass, rubber, and charcoal are examples of amorphous solids Crystalline solids display a very regular ordering of the particles in a three-dimensional structure called the crystal lattice In this crystal lattice there are repeating units called unit cells Figure 121 shows the relationship of the unit cells to the crystal lattice Several types of unit cells are found in solids The cubic system is the type most commonly appearing on the AP exam Three types of unit cells are found in the cubic system: 1 The simple cubic unit cell has particles located at the corners of a simple cube 2 The body-centered unit cell has particles located at the corners of the cube and in the center of the cube 3 The face-centered unit cell has particles at the corners and one in the center of each face of the cube, but not in the center of the cube itself Figure 122 shows three types of cubic unit cells Five types of crystalline solid are known: 1 In atomic solids, individual atoms are held in place by London forces The noble gases are the only atomic solids known to form 2 In molecular solids, lattices composed of molecules are held in place by London forces, dipole dipole forces, and hydrogen bonding Solid methane and water are examples of molecular solids 3 In ionic solids, lattices composed of ions are held together by the attraction of the opposite charges of the ions These crystalline solids tend to be strong, with high melting points because of the strength of the intermolecular forces NaCl and other salts are examples of ionic solids Figure 123 shows the lattice structure of NaCl Each sodium
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