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170 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
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Unit cell
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The crystal lattice for a simple cubic unit cell
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cation is surrounded by six chloride anions, and each chloride anion is surrounded by six sodium cations 4 In metallic solids, metal atoms occupying the crystal lattice are held together by metallic bonding In metallic bonding, the electrons of the atoms are delocalized and are free to move throughout the entire solid This explains electrical and thermal conductivity, as well as many other properties of metals
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The three types of unit cell of the cubic lattice
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5 In covalent network solids, covalent bonds join atoms together in the crystal lattice, which is quite large Graphite, diamond, and silicon dioxide (SiO2) are examples of network solids The crystal is one giant molecule
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Phase Diagrams
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The equilibrium that exists between a liquid and its vapor is just one of several that can exist between states of matter A phase diagram is a graph representing the relationship of a substance s states of matter to temperature and pressure The diagram allows us to predict which state of matter a substance will assume at a certain combination of temperature and pressure Figure 124 shows a general form of the phase diagram
Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces 171
+ Na+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Cl + +
Sodium chloride crystal lattice
Note that the diagram has three general areas corresponding to the three states of matter solid, liquid, and gas The line from A to C represents the solid s change in vapor pressure with changing temperature, for the sublimation equilibrium The A-to-D line represents the variation in the melting point with varying pressure The A-to-B line represents the variation of a liquid s vapor pressure with varying pressure The B point shown on this phase diagram is called the critical point of the substance, the point beyond which the gas and liquid phases are indistinguishable from each other At or beyond this critical point, no matter how much pressure is applied, the gas cannot be condensed into a liquid Point A is the substance s triple point, the combination of temperature and pressure at which all three states of matter can exist together The phase diagram for water is shown in Figure 125 For each of the phase transitions, there is an associated enthalpy change or heat of transition For example, there are heats of vaporization, fusion, sublimation, and so on
Relationship of Intermolecular Forces to Phase Changes
The intermolecular forces can affect phase changes to a great degree The stronger the intermolecular forces present in a liquid, the more kinetic energy must be added to convert it into a gas Conversely, the stronger the intermolecular forces between the gas particles, the easier it will be to condense the gas into a liquid In general, the weaker the intermolecular forces, the higher the vapor pressure The same type of reasoning can be used about the other phase equilibria, in general, the stronger the intermolecular forces, the higher the heats of transition Example: Based on intermolecular forces, predict which will have the higher vapor pressure and higher boiling point, water or dimethyl ether, CH3 O CH3
172 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
D Critical B point Liquid
Fusion (Melting) Freezing Pressure Solid
Vaporization Condensation
A Sublimation C Triple point Deposition
Temperature
A phase diagram
Critical point (374 C, 218 atm)
SOLID
LIQUID
Pressure (atm)
10 Triple point (001 C, 0006 atm) GAS
1 Temperature ( C)
Phase diagram for H2O
Answer: Dimethyl ether will have the higher vapor pressure and the lower boiling point Explanation: Water is a polar substance with strong intermolecular hydrogen bonds Dimethyl ether is a polar material with weaker intermolecular forces (dipole dipole) It will
Solids, Liquids, and Intermolecular Forces 173
take much more energy to vaporize water, thus, water has a lower vapor pressure and higher boiling point
Experimental
STRATEGY
The concept of intermolecular forces is important in the separation of the components of a mixture Experiment 18 in the Experimental chapter utilizes this concept
Common Mistakes to Avoid
1 Don t confuse the various types of intermolecular forces 2 The melting point and the freezing point are identical 3 Hydrogen bonding can occur only when a hydrogen atom is directly bonded to an N, O, or F atom 4 When moving from point to point in a phase diagram, pay attention to which phase transitions the substance exhibits 5 In looking at crystal lattice diagrams, be sure to count all the particles, in all three dimensions, that surround another particle
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