Solutions and Colligative Properties in C#.NET

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CHAPTER
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Solutions and Colligative Properties
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IN THIS CHAPTER Summary: A solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of a solvent and one or more solutes The solvent is the substance that acts as the dissolving medium and is normally present in the greatest amount Commonly the solvent is a liquid, but it doesn t have to be Our atmosphere is a solution with nitrogen as the solvent; it is the gas present in the largest amount (79%) Many times you will be dealing with a solution in which water is the solvent, an aqueous solution The solute is the substance that the solvent dissolves and is normally present in the smaller amount You may have more than one solute in a solution For example, if you dissolved table salt (sodium chloride) and table sugar (sucrose) in water, you would have one solvent (water) and two solutes (sodium chloride and sucrose) Some substances will dissolve in a particular solvent and others will not There is a general rule in chemistry that states that like dissolves like This general statement may serve as an answer in the multiple-choice questions, but does not serve as an explanation in the free-response questions This simply means that polar substances (salts, alcohols, etc) will dissolve in polar solvents such as water, and nonpolar solutes, such as iodine, will dissolve in nonpolar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride The solubility of a particular solute is normally expressed in terms of grams solute per 100 mL of solvent (g/mL) at a specified temperature The temperature must be specified because the solubility of a particular substance will vary with the temperature Normally, the solubility of solids dissolving in liquids increases with increasing temperature, while the reverse is true for gases dissolving in liquids A solution in which one has dissolved the maximum amount of solute per given amount of solvent at a given temperature is called a saturated solution 179
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180 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
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An unsaturated solution has less than the maximum amount of solute dissolved Sometimes, if the temperature, purity of the solute and solvent, and other factors are just right, you might be able to dissolve more than the maximum amount of solute, resulting in a supersaturated solution Supersaturated solutions are unstable, and sooner or later separation of the excess solute will occur, until a saturated solution and separated solute remain The formation of a solution depends on many factors, such as the nature of the solvent, the nature of the solute, the temperature, and the pressure Some of these factors were addressed in the Reactions and Periodicity chapter In general, the solubility of a solid or liquid will increase with temperature and be unaffected by pressure changes The solubility of a gas will decrease with increasing temperature and will increase with increasing partial pressure of the gas (Henry s law)
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p = osmotic pressure i = van t Hoff factor Kf = molal freezing-point depression constant Kb = molal boiling-point elevation constant Kf for H2O = 186 K kg mol 1 Kb for H2O = 0512 K kg mol 1 Tf = iKf molality Tb= iKb molality p = iMRT molarity, M = moles solute per liter solution molality, m = moles solute per kilogram solvent
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There are many ways of expressing the relative amounts of solute(s) and solvent in a solution The terms saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated give a qualitative measure, as do the terms dilute and concentrated The term dilute refers to a solution that has a relatively small amount of solute in comparison to the amount of solvent Concentrated, on the other hand, refers to a solution that has a relatively large amount of solute in comparison to the solvent However, these terms are very subjective If you dissolve 01 g of sucrose per liter of water, that solution would probably be considered dilute; 100 g of sucrose per liter would probably be considered concentrated But what about 25 g per liter dilute or concentrated In order to communicate effectively, chemists use quantitative ways of expressing the concentration of solutions Several concentration units are useful, including percentage, molarity, and molality
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