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Colpitts oscillators
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Colpitts oscillators are similar to the shunt fed Hartley oscillator circuit except the Colpitts oscillator, instead of having a tapped inductor, utilizes two series capacitors in its LC circuit With the Colpitts oscillator the connection between these two capacitors is used as the center tap for the circuit A Colpitts oscillator circuit is shown at Figure 2-5, and you will see some similarities with the Hartley oscillator The simplest Colpitts oscillator to construct and get running is the series tuned version, more often referred to as the Clapp Oscillator Because there is no load on the inductor, a high Q circuit results with a high L/C ratio and of course much less circulating current This aids drift reduction Because larger inductances are required, stray inductances do not have as much impact as perhaps in other circuits The total capacitive reactance of the parallel combination of capacitors depicted as series tuning below the inductor in a series tuned Colpitts oscillator or Clapp oscillator should have a total reactance of
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Figure 2-4 Hartley oscillator circuit
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Figure 2-5 Series tuned Colpitts oscillator circuit
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around 200 ohms Not all capacitors may be required in your particular application Effectively all the capacitors are in series in a Colpitts oscillator, ie they appear as parallel connected but their actual values are in fact in series Ideally, your frequency determining components L1 and the parallel capacitors should be in a grounded metal shield The FET used in the Colpitts oscillator is the readily available 2N4416A Note, the metal FET case is connected to the circuit ground The output from the Colpitts oscillator is through output capacitor 47 pF; this should be the smallest of values possible, consistent with continued reliable operation into the next buffer amplifier stage
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HF and higher frequencies without resorting to some sort of crystal control Hence the reason for crystal oscillators The crystal oscillator depicted at Figure 2-6 is a typical example of an RF or radio frequency crystal oscillators which may be used for exciters or RF converters Transistor Q1, can be any transistor which will operate up to 150 MHz, such as a 2N2222A The turns ratio on the tuned circuit depicts an anticipated nominal load of 50 ohms This allows a theoretical 25k ohms on the collector, so typically a 7:1 turns ratio for T1 would be used Use the: L * C = 25330 / F02 formula for determining L and C in the tuned circuits of crystal oscillator Personally I would make L a reactance of around 250 ohms In this case, I d make C1 a smaller trimmer capacitor The crystal at X1 could be an overtone type crystal for the crystal, selecting a L * C for the odd particular multiple of overtone wanted in your crystal oscillators Typically the output of the crystal oscillator would be followed by a buffer circuit A pictorial diagram of the crystal controlled oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 2-7 Note that the components in this diagram are illustrated as component blocks as they might actually look placed on the circuit, rather than as electronic symbols in a circuit diagram or schematic
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Crystal oscillators
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Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability Crystal oscillators are, usually, fixed frequency oscillators where stability and accuracy are the primary considerations For example, it is almost impossible to design a stable and accurate LC oscillator for the upper
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Figure 2-6 Crystal oscillator circuit
Figure 2-7 Crystal oscillator pictorial diagram
Ceramic resonator VFO oscillator
The ceramic resonator VFO, or variable frequency oscillator circuit shown in Figure 2-8, illustrates a 7MH oscillator with a variable crystal oscillator (VXO) The VXO oscillator is extremely stable, but allows only a small variation in frequency, as compared with a conventional VFO In contrast, a VFO with an LC resonant circuit can be tuned over a range of several hundred kHz, but its frequency stability will depend upon its construction, and is never as good as a crystal oscillator The use of a ceramic resonator as a frequency determining component fulfills both requirements The VXO oscillator is very stable yet it can vary the frequency, so the oscillator can be tuned The range of a VXO oscillator circuit is not as wide as an LC oscillator but it offers a tuning range of 35 kHz with good frequency stability The somewhat unusual resonant LC circuit at the collector of Q1 has two functions It improves the shape of the output signal and also compensates for the amplitude drop starting at approx 7020 kHz Transistor Q1 is a readily obtainable 2N3904 and the ceramic resonator is a Murata SFE 702 M2C type or equivalent Inductor L1 consists of two coils on a T50-2 powered iron toroid The primary coil is 8-turns, while the secondary coil is 2-turns
The diagram shown in Figure 2-9 depicts the ceramic resonator as a pictorial diagram, where the components look as a components block that might be placed in a circuit rather than an actual schematic diagram
Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO)
A voltage controlled oscillator, or VCO, is an oscillator where the main variable tuning capacitor is a varactor diode The voltage controlled oscillator is tuned across the band by a well regulated Dc voltage applied to the varactor diode, which varies the net capacitance applied to the tuned circuit The voltage controlled oscillator, shown in Figure 2-10, illustrates a VCO which operates in the amateur radio band between 18 and 20 MHz Buying quality variable capacitors today is often quite expensive, so VCOs are an extremely attractive alternative As an alternative, all you need is an extremely stable and clean source of Dc power, a varactor diode and a high quality potentiometer usually a 10 turn type Note that circuit Q tends to be somewhat degraded by using varactor diodes instead of variable capacitors When a reverse voltage is applied to a diode, it exhibits the characteristics of a capacitor Altering the voltage alters the capacitance Common diodes such as
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