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THE LOWER RESPIRATORY PATHWAY
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As the trachea branches, the lower respiratory pathway is created The right and left primary bronchi (BRAHN-kigh), the rst branches, then enter the two lungs The primary bronchi just keep branching Eventually, a set of bronchioles (BRAHN-kee-ohls) or little bronchi emerges Much like an inverted (upside down) tree, the respiratory tree thus consists of a succession of ever-smaller and more numerous branches the larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles At the furthest tips of the bronchioles, hang clusters of thousands of alveoli (Picture the many olives suspended from the branches of an inverted olive tree) Each alveolus is essentially a collapsible, extremely
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PART 4 Anatomy and Physiology of Animals
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thin-walled air sac It is across the walls of the alveoli, and their close neighbors, the pulmonary capillaries, that external respiration occurs By this means, remember, oxygen contained in the inhaled air nally enters the bloodstream [Study suggestion: Look very carefully at Figure 183 Which structure mentioned in this section do you think represents the so-called Adam s apple in males Why ]
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SUPERIOR VIEW OF LARYNX Epiglottis LARYNX ( voice box ) TRACHEA ( windpipe ) Vocal cords Laryngeal prominence Glottis (like a tongue )
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R & L Primary bronchi Bronchioles ( little bronchi ) CLOSE-UP OF TIP OF TREE Bronchiole
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INVERTED OLIVE TREE ALVEOLI Olives
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Fig 183 The respiratory tree
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CHAPTER 18 The Respiratory System
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Frogs versus Mammals: The Mechanism of Inspiration
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The previous section basically told us about the sequence of structures through which air passes when we breathe The next obvious question we could ask is, Okay, but how do we breathe, in the rst place How do we inhale air into our lungs The answer to this question involves a discussion of the mechanism of inspiration
BULK FLOW OF AIR
Air circulates through the respiratory tree in much the same way that blood circulates through the cardiovascular system As we learned in 17, blood ows down a blood pressure (BP) gradient, from a place where the BP is higher, towards another place where the BP is lower In general, we can call this a bulk ow process Bulk ow is the pressure-driven movement of some uid substance (such as blood or air) from an area of greater pressure towards an area of lower pressure In other words, bulk ow occurs down a pressure gradient For ventilation in lung-breathing animals, such as frogs and mammals, then, the problem becomes one of creating an air pressure gradient a difference in air pressure between the air in the atmosphere and the air within the alveoli (tiny lung air sacs) With such a gradient, there will be a bulk ow of air from the atmosphere, and into the lung alveoli
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EQUAL GAS PRESSURES
There are two total gas pressures to consider The atmospheric pressure is the pressure created by all of the gases in the atmosphere (The atmosphere is the approximately 1 mile-thick blanket of air covering the surface of the Earth) At sea level, the atmospheric pressure pushes with a total force of about 760 mmHg The atmospheric pressure also pushes with this force upon the lips and nostrils So when a person opens his mouth, the atmospheric pressure tends to push air down into his lung alveoli (see Figure 184, A) Conversely, the intra-alveolar (in-trah-al-VEE-oh-lar) pressure is the total pressure exerted by all of the gas molecules within the alveoli When a person opens his mouth, the intra-alveolar pressure tends to push air out of the alveoli, and out of the nose and mouth
PART 4 Anatomy and Physiology of Animals
The atmospheric pressure (tending to push air into the alveoli) and the intra-alveolar pressure (tending to push air out of the alveoli) are thus two opposing pressures Between breaths, we have an equality of these two pressures: Atmospheric pressure Intra-alveolar pressure and No air pressure gradient, therefore no bulk flow of air into or out of the lungs
POSITIVE-PRESSURE BREATHING
In order for the frog or mammal to breathe, the equality between the atmospheric and intra-alveolar pressures must be broken In positive-pressure breathing, an air pressure gradient is created by doing something positive : that is, by increasing one of the pressures to make it higher than the other one Consider the case of the frog and most other kinds of amphibians (Figure 184, B) The frog opens its nostrils, lowers the oor of its mouth, and gulps air into its oral cavity The next step is the one that creates a positive-pressure breathing e ect: the frog closes its nostrils and raises the oor of its mouth This action creates a pushing force, thereby increasing the atmospheric pressure within the frog s mouth Inspiration occurs because air from the mouth is then pushed down through the pharynx and trachea, and into the lung alveoli, which have a lower pressure
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