CHAPTER 19 Nutrition/Digestive System
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Revisiting the liver once more, we can say that it has numerous other critical body functions, in addition to the production of bile First among these is detoxi cation (dee-TAHKS-ih- h-KAY-shun) the process of taking poison out of the bloodstream The liver cells help detoxify (deeTAHKS-ih-feye) drinking alcohol, for instance, so that it is broken down into sugar and water without toxifying ( poisoning ) the brain! [Study suggestion: When we say that a person is drunk, what does that imply, with regards to the associated function of the liver ] Summarizing all of the above, we can say that the duodenum, as the rst segment of the small intestine, receives chyme from the stomach, bile from the liver and cholecyst, and pancreatic juice from the pancreas As a result, the chemical digestion of all three basic types of foodstu s carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins is essentially completed within the small intestine Lying downstream from the liver and pancreas entry point the duodenal papilla are the jejunum (jeh-JOO-num) and the ileum (IL-ee-um) The jejunum and ileum basically complete the processes of chemical digestion and absorption of nutrients that began in the duodenum We thus have the following simple summary equation: SMALL INTESTINE Duodenum Jejunum Ileum
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THE COLON: OUR LARGE INTESTINE
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The last major section of the digestive tube is the colon (KOH-lun) or large intestine The colon (large intestine) is a wide-diameter, folded tube, about 6 feet (2 meters) in length in an average-sized human adult (see Figure 195) The colon begins with the cecum (SEE-kum), a blind (cec) or dead-ended pouch that has the vermiform (VER-mih-form) appendix or worm-like attachment hooked to its base The vermiform appendix is basically a solid attachment of modi ed lymphatic tissue ( 17) that plays a minor role in the body s immune or self-defense system Liquid chyme from the ileum of the small intestine pushes through the ileocecal (il-ee-oh-SEE-kul) sphincter Once within the cecum, the chyme begins to undergo an extensive drying out process, wherein large amounts of water and salt (H2O) are absorbed In addition, there are bene cial bacteria in the colon that produce a variety of B-vitamins, as well as sulfur-containing amino acids, which are also absorbed Due to this drying out process, chyme is solidi ed into feces (FEE-seez) within the colon Besides H2O, feces also contain a signi cant percentage of fecal (FEE-kal) bacteria and dietary ber (actually undigested cellulose material)
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PART 4 Anatomy and Physiology of Animals
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Looking at Figure 195, you might well ask yourself, How does chyme/ feces in the cecum, which is way down at the bottom of the large intestine, move up to the other parts of the colon Good question! The answer is, by mass peristalsis (pear-ih-STAHL-sis) Peristalsis literally means a constriction (-stalsis) around (peri-) Formally de ned, then, peristalsis is a constriction (narrowing) around a particular point of some tube, due to the contraction of a circular ring of smooth muscle around the tube Mass peristalsis is thus the simultaneous constriction or narrowing of a large number of directly neighboring points along the large intestine wall, such that the heavy mass of the feces is pushed on to the next section of the colon [Study suggestion: Either in your imagination, or for real, get a large tube of toothpaste Turn it upside down, and remove the cap Now, make a ring around the upper part of the tube using both your hands Count one two three Constrict your ngers hard around the tube! What do you observe This constriction at a single point is a crude model of peristalsis Think How could you use the same basic elements to model mass peristalsis in the colon If you phoned up several of your friends, what could you do ]
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