PART 3 Five Kingdoms of Life, plus Viruses
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of alcoholic fermentation (fer-men-TAY-shun) By this process, yeast cells produce both carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol (common drinking alcohol) as waste products When the fermenting wine reaches an alcohol content of about 12 16%, the yeast cells become poisoned and die from too much alcohol! Some common types of molds are also considered members of the Phylum Ascomycetes (sac fungi) In general, a mold is a fuzzy coating of fungus growing on the surface of some food or animal or plant substances, when they are decaying or left for too long in a moist, warm place A familiar example of such a fuzzy mold is the genus Penicillium (pen-ih-SIL-e-um), named from the Latin for brush The Penicillium fungi are bluish-colored molds growing on bread, fruits, and cheeses They have a somewhat brushlike appearance under the light microscope, and several Penicillium species produce penicillin, the powerful, bacteria-killing, antibiotic drug
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PHYLUM ZYGOMYCETES (THE ZYGOTE FUNGI)
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A third group of fungi are those of the Phylum Zygomycetes (zeye-go-mySEE-teez), literally the yoked together (zygo-) fungi This phylum of fungi derives its name from the inclusion of a zygote (ZEYE-goat) within its life cycle A zygote consists of two sex cells, called gametes (GAM-eats), that are literally fused, yoked, or married (gamet) together during fertilization The so-called zygote fungi in this group utilize sexual reproduction the fusion of two gametes together to create a zygote Once formed, the zygote then divides repeatedly by the process of mitosis ( 5), thereby creating a new adult organism The zygotes are enclosed in thick-walled zygospores (ZEYE-go-spoors), which are shed and sent wafting out through the air to new locations A typical zygomycetic (zeye-go-my-SEE-tick) fungus is the black bread mold, genus Rhizopus (RYE-zuh-pus) root (rhiz) feet (pus) Interestingly enough, like many fungi, the Rhizopus group can engage in both sexual reproduction (gametes uniting to form zygotes), as well as asexual (AY-sex-you-al) reproduction that occurs without (a-) gametes For simplicity, just the asexual reproduction of the black bread mold is displayed in Figure 84 A spore lands on a piece of white bread, then begins to germinate (JERmuh-nayt) The landed spore sprouts a number of slender, thread-like hyphae, which soon merge to form a white, extensively branching mycelium, deep inside the bread slice Soon, a large number of round-topped sporangia
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CHAPTER 8 Fungi: Not Just Mushrooms
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New spores shed Wind blows Shed spore
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Sporangia appear Spore lands and germinates
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Extensive mycelium results Rhizoids root the black mold
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Fig 84 The asexual life cycle of Rhizopus or black bread mold
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(spoh-RAN-jee-ah) or seed (spor) vessels (angi), appear like tiny black pu balls The round, black sporangia are attached to the bread surface by long, narrow stalks The mold is called Rhizopoda, because the sporangia and their stalks are rmly anchored into the bread surface by means of rhizoids (RYE-zoyds) blunt, root-resembling or foot-resembling projections When the wind blows, masses of black spores are scattered from the rounded sporangia, which hold thousands of them A spore may land on another piece of bread, and the life cycle of the mold begins anew
PHYLUM CHYTRIDIOMYCETES (WATER-DWELLING FUNGI)
A fourth phylum of fungi is the Phylum Chytridiomycetes (KIH-trid-e-oh-mySEE-teez) or water-dwelling (chytrid) fungi The members of this group with an extremely tongue-twisting name are more easily called chytrids (KITrids), because they are mainly water-dwellers Recent evidence suggests that the chytrids are the most primitive fungi, and that they were the rst type to evolve from protists having agella
PART 3 Five Kingdoms of Life, plus Viruses
Dwelling in an aqueous (watery) environment, each chytrid has a small, globe-shaped body It produces a highly active spore which has a agellum attached In their adult stage, the chytrids make a large mycelium (network) consisting of an extensive tangle of slender hyphae These highly branched hyphae create a large area for the easy absorption of nutrients dissolved in the surrounding water
Summary diagram of the fungi
Figure 85 provides summary pictures and brief descriptions of each of the four major phyla of fungi we have been studying