CHAPTER 9 Plants: Kings and Queens
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The Dead Gira e DISORDER TABLE for 9 (Key Text Facts About Biological Disorder Within An Organism)
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The Spider Web ORDER TABLE for 9 (Key Text Facts About Biological Order Beyond The Individual Organism)
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The Broken Spider Web DISORDER TABLE for 9 (Key Text Facts About Biological Disorder Beyond The Individual Organism)
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Invertebrates As Special Animals: Have You No Spine
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The last few chapters have featured relatively simple organisms, such as the bacteria, slime molds, and fungi And 9 considered plants in detail Now, with 10, we begin to move beyond plants and simple organisms and explore the Exciting World of Animals! You may remember ( 3) that an animal is any living, breathing (anima) multicellular organism that is neither a plant nor a fungus We further label all animals as heterotrophs, in that they must eat other organisms or organic matter to obtain energy for their survival Finally, all animals are eukaryotes, because their cells contain nuclei
CHAPTER 10 Invertebrates
The Invertebrates: Animals without Backbones
3 also pointed out that there are two broad types of animals the vertebrates (animals with backbones) and the invertebrates (animals without backbones) We are discussing the invertebrates, rst, because they are the older group and the rst to appear in the Fossil Record There are several ways in which invertebrate animals can be subdivided into di erent main types or groups: for example, according to whether true body tissues are present or according to the overall pattern of body form
PRESENCE OR LACK OF TRUE BODY TISSUES
Recall ( 2) that a tissue is a collection of living cells, plus the intercellular material located in the spaces between them Most invertebrates (and other animals) contain true body tissues: ie, collections of similar cells that are specialized to perform only certain body functions Epithelial tissues, for example, are collections of cells specialized for covering and lining body parts, while connective tissues help strap or link di erent body parts together This main group of animals are technically called the eumetazoans (yew-metuh-ZOH-ahns) The eumetazoans are literally the animals (-zoans) that contain true (eu-) tissues that are formed after (meta-) repeated cell division in the embryo Both a star sh and a lobster, for instance, contain specialized tissues playing particular roles in di erent parts of their bodies Hardened epithelial tissue covers the tough, horny back of the lobster, whereas the soft muscle tissue (commonly eaten by humans) lies within its body and legs The other main group of animals are the parazoans (pair-uh-ZOH-ahns) The parazoans are a small group of invertebrates that literally lie beside (para-) most other animals, not quite belonging The parazoans lack true tissues This makes them basically di erent from the eumetazoan animals with tissues The primary living examples of parazoa are the sponges (Figure 101) Sponges are members of the Phylum Porifera (poor-IF-erah), because their bodies are full of pores or holes Sponges are usually stationary animals attached to the ocean oor They consist of tube-like or wider vase-like colonies of cells having some specialization, but not enough to create individual tissues Cells with agella help sweep large quantities of seawater in through pores along the sides of the sponge The agellated cells are called collar cells As the nutrient-rich seawater is swept in, food particles are caught within the sticky mucus in the oval collar of tiny branches located at the base of the agellum The particles are then ingested by phagocytosis
PART 3 Five Kingdoms of Life, plus Viruses
EUMETAZOANS (have true body tissues)
PARAZOANS (no true body tissues)
Water flow Pore STARFISH LOBSTER SPONGE (porifera) Amoeba-like cell Flagellum
Fig 101 Eumetazoans versus Parazoans: Tissues versus no tissues
Neighboring amoeba-like cells help with the digestive process Although the collar cells and amoeba-like cells are di erent, they still do not form separate types of tissues