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85 GEOMETRIC DILUTION OF PRECISION QR Code Encoder In Visual C# Using Barcode creator for VS .NET Control to generate, create QR Code 2d barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications. Reading Denso QR Bar Code In Visual C# Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications. 10 GDOP 10
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(885) 86 TWO FREQUENCY RECEIVERS which has the measurement model = + Ecm +
2 f1 2 2 f1 f2 2 1 f 2 f 2 2 f2 1 2
(886) Eqn (885) is not usually used directly, because as shown in eqn (886), 2 the noise variance (ie, e ect of 1 and 2 on ) is approximately 9 The following two paragraphs discuss alternative approaches to the construction of ionospheric free pseudorange observables An estimate of the ionospheric delay can be computed as Ia = f1 f2 2 2 ( 2 1 ) f1 f2 (887) Direct substitution of eqns (883 884) into eqn (887) shows that Ia f1 f2 2 2 ( 2 1 ) f1 f2 = Ia + 1984 ( 2 1 ) = Ia + (888) (889) which shows that Ia is unbiased The variance of Ia at each epoch is 2 approximately 8 Because of the magni cation of the receiver noise, the ionospheric estimate of eqn (887) is not used directly to compensate the pseudorange measurement Instead, because Ia changes slowly with a correlation time of a few hours, while 1 and 2 have much shorter correlation times, Ia could for example be low pass ltered by a lter with a time constant of several minutes to greatly decrease the e ect of 1 and 2 while maintaining the time variation of Ia If we denote the ltered version of a as Ia then an ionosphere free pseudorange can be computed as I = 1 which has the error model = + Ecm + 1 where the ionospheric error has been (essentially) removed and the measurement noise has not been ampli ed The remaining commonmode errors could be removed via di erential processing Another approach is discussed subsequently Simultaneous L1 and L2 phase observables from the same satellite and receiver can be modeled as 1 1 2 2 = = f2 Ia + 1 + 1 N1 f1 f1 + Ecm Ia + 2 + 2 N2 f2 + Ecm (891) (892) f2 Ia f1 (890)

