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pH, pKa, pRoblems
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If something is a strong acid, it naturally gives up a proton easily, and the base that results must not want it back The conjugate base of a strong acid is, then, a weak base For the same reason, the conjugate acids of strong bases are weak acids The word conjugate is just thrown in to make it sound similar to real chemistry The Ka s can also be used to describe base strengths Bases don t have Ka s, but their conjugate acids do A strong acid (high Ka) has a weak conjugate base, and a weak acid (low Ka) has a strong conjugate base
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The weakest acid (strongest base)
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What happens when you mix an acid and base, or, worse still, two acids and a base Who gets the proton Often there s no choice If there s only one base present (other than water), the base gets the proton If you add an acid to a mixture of bases, the stronger base takes the proton first Because we only discuss acid strengths, the stronger base is the one that comes from the weakest acid (has the highest pKa) RNH2 pKa 105 RS pKa 86
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Here, when you add an acid, the amino group, the strongest base, gets the proton first If you add a base to a mixture of acids, the strongest acid gives up protons first RCO2H pKa 45 RNH 3 pKa 105
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When titrating acids with a strong base, the acids titrate in order of increasing pKa A carboxylic acid titrates before a protonated amine when strong base is added
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When a weak acid is neutralized by a strong base, the concentration of the acid (HA) decreases by the same amount [in molar units (M)] as the concentration of the conjugate base increases
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When you add a strong acid to a solution of a base, the base is converted to an acid There s not really much to remember here, but it still seems to be confusing to a lot of people In the example in Fig 23-1, the acetate that is converted to acetic acid when HCl is added has to come from somewhere (acetate) and has to go somewhere (acetic acid) Not only does the concentration of acetic acid increase, but the concentration of the acetate must decrease
CH3CO2 acetate starting CH3CO2 acetate remaining CH3CO2H 10 M 03 M HCI 07 M new acetic acid 03 M
Figure 23-1 A Strong Acid Converts a Base to its Acid Form
Don t forget that the amount of the acid form that s produced has to come from somewhere
THE SADISTIC LITTLE p
pH log10[H ] log10 1 [H ]
H must be in M units
The little p is what screws it all up In an attempt to avoid writing lots of 0 s and the sign, some physical chemist in prehistory condemned whole generations to backward thinking Perhaps it s what little p stands for that is so confusing: p means, Take the negative logarithm (base 10) of the next thing that follows pH log [H ] This has the
pH, pKa, pRoblems
effect of making very little numbers (eg, 0000000001, or 10 9) much bigger, that is, 9 The smaller the number, the bigger the p of that number is The little p makes things backward remember backward
TAKING log10(x)
log (10x) log 1000 log 0001 x log (103) log (10 3) 3 3
Logarithms are the answers you get when you put a number in your calculator and press the log10 button (not to be confused with the ln button) The log10 of something is the power to which 10 has to be raised to give the number you just entered: log (10something) something, or 10log(somethingelse) somethingelse To undo what log does, use the 10x button on your calculator The logarithm of 1 is zero (100 1) If a number is greater than 1, its logarithm is greater than zero (positive) If a number is less than 1, the logarithm is less than zero (negative) If a number is negative, then it won t have a logarithm your calculator knows this, so don t worry about it
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