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REFRACTIVE INDEX
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Different media transmit light at different speeds This does not violate the fundamental principle of relativity theory The speed of light is absolute in a vacuum, where it travels at 299,792 km/s or 186,282 mi/s expressed to six significant digits However, light travels more slowly than this in other media because the relativistic principle only applies for a vacuum In air, the difference in the speed of light is slight, although it can be significant enough to produce refractive effects at near-grazing angles between air masses having different densities In water, glass, quartz, diamond, and other transparent media, light travels quite a lot more slowly than it does in a vacuum The refractive index of a particular medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium If c is the speed of light in a vacuum and cx is the speed of light in medium X, then the index of refraction for medium X, call it rx, can be calculated simply: rx c/cx Always use the same units when expressing c and cx According to this definition, the index of refraction of any transparent material is always greater than or equal to 1 The greater the index of refraction for a transparent substance, the more a ray of light is bent when it passes the boundary between that substance and air Different types of glass have different refractive indices Quartz refracts more than glass, and diamond refracts more than quartz The high refractive index of diamond is responsible for the multicolored shine of diamond stones
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The index of refraction for a particular substance depends on the wavelength of the light passing through it Glass slows down light the most at the shortest wavelengths (blue and violet) and the least at the longest wavelengths (red and orange) This variation of the refractive index with wavelength is known as dispersion It is the principle by which a prism works (Fig 17-3) The more the light is slowed down by the glass, the more its path is deflected when it passes through the prism This is why prisms cast rainbows when white light shines through them Dispersion is important in optical astronomy for two reasons First, a prism can be used to make a spectrometer, which is a device for examining
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Red Prism Green Violet Figure 17-3 Dispersion is responsible for the fact that a glass
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prism splits white light into its constituent colors
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the intensity of visible light at specific wavelengths (Gratings are also used for this) Second, dispersion degrades the quality of white-light images viewed through lenses unless those lenses are specially made to cancel out the effect
Lenses and Mirrors
The ways in which visible light is reflected and refracted can be used to advantage This was first discovered when experimenters noticed that specially shaped pieces of glass could make objects look larger or smaller The refractive properties of glass have been used for centuries to help correct nearsightedness and farsightedness Lenses work because they refract light more or less depending on where and at what angle the light strikes their surfaces Curved mirrors have much the same effect when they reflect light
THE CONVEX LENS
You can buy a convex lens in almost any novelty store or department store In a good hobby store you should be able to find a magnifying glass up to 10 cm (4 in) or even 15 cm (6 in) in diameter The term convex arises from the fact that one or both faces of the glass bulge outward at the center A convex lens is sometimes called a converging lens It brings parallel light rays to a sharp focus or focal point, as shown in Fig 17-4A, when those rays
Optics and Telescopes
are parallel to the axis of the lens It also can collimate (make parallel) the light from a point source, as shown in Fig 17-4B