Basic Networking in Software

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communication and supports transmission speeds of either 10Mbps or 100Mbps Ethernet networks can use twisted-pair, coax, or fiber-optic cable and can use bus or star topologies You must use a special Ethernet NIC to access an Ethernet network Ethernet networks are often referred to by their speed, channel type, and cable type For example, the term 10BaseF indicates a 10Mbps network that uses one (base) channel and fiber-optic (F) cable 100BaseT is a 100Mbps Ethernet network that uses twisted-pair Table 7-2 contains Ethernet types and their characteristics
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Ethernet networks are identified by this configuration: speedBasecable The 10 or 100 at the start of the configuration signifies the
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speed in Mbps, and the letter or number at the end indicates the cable type (T = twisted-pair, 2 = thinnet, 5 = thicknet, and F = fiber)
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Token-Passing Networks
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Token-passing networks are those that use the token-passing access method There are several IEEE-defined standards for token passing, including Token Ring, Token Bus, and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) Token-passing networks can use star, ring, or bus topologies and coax, twisted-pair, or fiber-optic cabling For each tokenpassing network type, you must install the proper type of NIC Token Ring networks are based on the IEEE 8025 standard and have transmission rates of either 4Mbps or 16Mbps They use twisted-pair cable and half-duplex communication Although Token Ring networks may actually have a physical ring topology, it is more common for them to have a star topology In either case, the
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TABLE 7-2
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Ethernet Types and Characteristics
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10BaseT 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseF 100BaseTX 100BaseT4 100BaseFX
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Speed
10Mbps 10Mbps 10Mbps 10Mbps 100Mbps 100Mbps
Cable
Twisted-pair Coax (thinnet) Coax (thicknet) Fiber-optic Twisted-pair Fiber-optic
Maximum Cable Length
100 meters 185 meters 500 meters 2000 meters 100 meters 412 meters
Topology
Star Bus Bus Star Star Star
Networking Concepts
token travels from one computer to the next, in order, in a conceptual ring This type of network uses a multiple access unit (MAU) instead of a hub See Figure 7-8 for an illustration of a conceptual ring on a physical star topology Another type of token-passing network is Token Bus This network, based on IEEE standard 8024, is similar to Token Ring but Token Ring networks with uses a coax bus topology rather than a twisted-pair a star topology use a MAU, not a hub ring or star A Token Bus network can transmit at 4Mbps only FDDI networks use the FDDI standard, which was developed by ANSI and based on the IEEE 8025 Token Ring standard FDDI networks use a fiber-optic dual-ring structure and are capable of transmitting up to 100Mbps
Dial-Up Networks
A dial-up network connection uses a modem rather than a network card and uses regular phone cables instead of network cables In a dial-up connection, one computer must be configured to dial the host computer, and the host computer must be configured to permit dial-up access Once a dial-up connection has been established, the two computers can communicate as though they were part of a LAN If the host computer is already part of a LAN, the dial-up connection can be used to allow remote access to it
Direct Connection
It is possible to network two PCs simply by connecting them via their network adapter, parallel, or serial ports Direct connections require special cables with different pinouts so that the send wires on one computer match the receive wires on the other computer This is called a crossover cable Although this type of connection provides
FIGURE 7-8
A conceptual ring on a physical star network
7:
Basic Networking
relatively fast data transmission, it is limited to two computers only Distances are limited by the cable characteristics of the connection used To configure a direct cable connection in Windows 9x and Me, follow the procedure in Exercise 7-1 This exercise describes how to first configure the host, then the guest machine In the case of a serial connection the connection is usually accomplished using the RS 232 serial standard Parallel connections typically use the IEEE 1284 standard for communications
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