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Achieving Extreme Performance with Oracle Exadata
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When Oracle introduced the second-generation Sun Oracle Database Machine in 2009, the ratio of database server nodes to Exadata Storage Server cells remained fixed at 4:7 in Half-Racks and Full Racks and for multiple Full Racks (and 2:3 in Quarter-Racks) As before, there were 12 disks for user data in each storage server cell However, performance characteristics of key components were improved across the board The Intel Xeon 5540 CPUs in the database server nodes and Exadata Storage Server cells were about 80 percent faster than the CPUs in the earlier-generation Database Machine The DDR dynamic access random memory (DRAM) was improved from DDR2 to DDR3, and memory capacity was increased in each database server node from 32GB to 72GB Though a Full Rack also contained 168 disks for user data in this platform, disk throughput increased by 50 percent and storage capacity increased with the introduction of 600GB and 2TB disk drives The addition of Exadata Smart Flash Cache to the Exadata Storage Server cells (384GB of Flash per cell) added a new dimension to speeding up I/O operations and database performance To complete the balanced performance improvements, Oracle doubled the throughput of the InfiniBand switch to 40 Gb per second The increased power and flexibility enabled Oracle to extend the applicability of the configurations beyond just data warehousing to also support transaction processing and consolidation of multiple database servers to a single Sun Oracle Database Machine The Oracle announcement in September 2010 of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine X2-2 systems featured configured database server nodes to Exadata Storage Server cells in the ratios previously mentioned Nodes in the X2-2 systems had two sockets for CPUs per node but now contained six core Intel Xeon 5670 processors and 96GB of memory At that time, Oracle also introduced large symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) nodes paired in new Oracle Exadata Database Machine X2-8 full-rack systems Each node in the X2-8 configuration contained eight sockets holding eight core Intel Xeon 7560 processors along with 1TB of memory Figure 1-1 illustrates where the key components in the Oracle Exadata Database Machine X2-2 configurations reside in a Full Rrack The X2-2 configurations are typically deployed where smaller but more numerous nodes are more appropriate for workloads and to meet high-availability performance needs (since an individual node failure would have less impact on overall system performance than loss of a larger SMP node) Oracle Exadata Database Machine X2-8 systems are deployed where workloads scale better on large SMP nodes and/or where larger memory footprints are required
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The specifics of this hardware will continue to change over time But the fundamental balanced design concepts continue with each subsequent release of the product As new designs emerge, capacities and performance levels continue to improve across these key components in a balanced fashion
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Software Integration and the Oracle Exadata Database Machine
Though understanding the hardware concepts is important, it is equally important to understand the implications of Oracle s software integration to this platform Oracle s platform support includes the operating system, Oracle Enterprise Linux, as the foundation for the database server nodes and Exadata Storage Server cells As an alternative, Oracle also offers the Solaris 11 operating system for the database server nodes Upon this platform, Oracle tightly integrates Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition and extends database functionality into storage with the Exadata Storage Server Software Other Oracle database software components on the platform that are central to a typical deployment are RAC and the Oracle Partitioning Option
Achieving Extreme Performance with Oracle Exadata
One example of the tight integration of the hardware and database is the leveraging of Exadata Smart Flash Cache as a database cache Supported in the Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software available with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Enterprise Edition, Oracle provides a caching algorithm that is more than simply the last recently used data to avoid frequent flushing of the cache The Exadata Storage Server Software thus leverages the Flash as a cache and automatically manages it by default The DBA can designate usage of the Flash Cache for specific application tables and indexes by using an ALTER command with the CELL_FLASH_CACHE attribute set to KEEP The Oracle Exadata Storage Server Software really provides two key functions managing Sun servers as disk arrays and pushing key database functionally into storage to speed up performance The Exadata Storage Server Software performance speed-up capabilities are transparent to Oracle SQL and optimizer This approach is beneficial, since applications can run unchanged on the Oracle Exadata Database Machine and also because as new Exadata Storage Server Software releases introduce new optimization techniques, these will also provide their benefits transparently For example, users of early HP Oracle Database Machines that later installed database upgrades to Oracle Database 11 g Release 2 and the corresponding Exadata Storage Server Software gained benefits from transparently having access to new underlying features such as storage indexes and data-mining model scoring Because the optimization is transparent, there is no certification process for applications specifically tied to their support of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine Rather, the applications simply need to be supported on the necessary Oracle database version (Oracle Database 11 g Enterprise Edition Release 2 or later on the Sun versions of the Oracle Exadata Database Machine), scale well when deployed on RAC, and should not have unusual storage characteristics that preclude the use of Automatic Storage Management Management of the platform is provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Strategies for backups, disaster recovery, user management, security, and other common DBA tasks remain unchanged from other Oracle deployment platforms Certainly, the balanced nature of the platform and better integrated optimization of database and hardware does simplify the DBA s role to some degree In addition to standard Oracle database management capabilities, Grid Control adds capabilities specific to managing Exadata Storage Server cells through a plug-in A DBA has the ability to view how queries are resolved and see certain Exadata Storage Server optimizations, such as smart scans and Bloom filters, in their Explain Plans
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