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Oracle Database Vault
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Database Administrator The person(s) whose job duties require him or her to connect to the database to maintain the database structure, database security, or the database applications that reside in a database
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This section discusses how to identify these types of accounts within the use-case analysis paradigm we ve discussed so far and how the Database Administrator type of account can be broken into a fine-grained separation of duty model The section serves to lay the groundwork for the detailed separation of duty model example presented in the next section
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Oracle technologies such as proxy authentication and EUS require a real database account to serve as an intermediary between the database and a directory These accounts are also not typically directly logged into but rather are used as part of a connection pool in application servers The system access accounts are typically granted the privilege sets on objects they do not own and they are a form of the Read-only Application User or Read-write Application User profiles we will discuss next Similar to the batch-program variety of system accounts, there are access path factors or other conditions that would define the normal use of these system accounts The situation is reverse here, so we allowed database connections and authorized realm activity from the application servers hosting our web applications and disallowed the account usage from the database servers and backend infrastructure Our notional database application environment has internal and external web service consumers Suppose we are using EUS and the same directory server for authentication of employees and partners to these services; we can and should map the different base user trees to different global schemas (the system access account) since the privilege sets for the consumers may be different Figure 6-2 depicts the mapping defined in the Oracle Enterprise Security Manager (ESM) for internal users to the global schema GLOBAL_INTERNAL Figure 6-3 depicts the mapping defined in the ESM for external users to the global schema GLOBAL_EXTERNAL
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6: Applied Database Vault for Custom Applications
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If the application servers that host the web services for the two different sets of users are different, we can then leverage this fact as a DBV factor to fine-tune the authorizations of SQL commands issued by these two global schemas Suppose the application servers that serve (internal) employees have IP addresses of 1921680100 and 1921680101 The application servers that serve external partners have IP addresses of 192168050 and 192168010151 We can create DBV rules to be used in authorizations for these system access accounts as follows:
-- create a rule to authorize commands for an -- internal global system access account BEGIN dbms_macadmcreate_rule( rule_name => 'Is Internal Web Service' , rule_expr => 'NVL(DVFF$Client_IP,''0'') IN ' || '(''1921680100'',''1921680101'')' || ' AND DVFF$Session_User = ''GLOBAL_INTERNAL''' ); END; / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed -- create a rule to authorize commands for an -- external global system access account BEGIN dbms_macadmcreate_rule( rule_name => 'Is External Web Service' , rule_expr => 'NVL(DVFF$Client_IP,''0'') IN ' || '(''192168050'',''192168051'')' || ' AND DVFF$Session_User = ''GLOBAL_EXTERNAL''' );
Part II:
Oracle Database Vault
END; / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed
These additional identities for the Client_IP and Session_User factors could also be incorporated into the Connection_Type DBV identity map presented in 5 to establish new connection classifications of INTERNAL_WEB and EXTERNAL_WEB
Read-only Application Users and Read-write Application Users
Read-only application users are typically found in reporting systems or in a privilege set that is assigned to a partner application for a consolidated database with integrated object-owner accounts For example, we may define an HR read-only role for access to the objects in the HR schema and grant this HR read-only role to the SH schema or a SH-related read-write role Read-write application users are typically found in transactional database systems as they require INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands against objects an application s object-owner account The users might also have access to execute PL/SQL procedures that are required to participate in the transactional nature of the system, especially in packaged applications for human resources or finance The first things to consider before we create the end user access roles are the object access behaviors (the Verb-Object tables discussed earlier) the actors invoke in the use cases we defined for our system In our notional use case, we ve defined SELECT (read) on several objects such as Products, Channels, and Promotions in the SH schema as well as INSERT (write) on the object Product Cost We also know that additional use cases in our system, such as the internal and external web services, will query Sales History objects It becomes evident as we examine the Subject-Verb-Object-Condition tables we create that each use case will exhibit the need for read-only and read-write role pattern from 1 The difference among the use cases is the objects that are read from or written to It is perfectly acceptable to define the read-only or read-write roles required for each use case at the start in other words, a role for each Subject-Verb-Object-Condition table but we must iterate through each role definition to see where the roles for the use case are the same and can therefore be combined into common roles We must be careful not to combine them with reckless abandon, as we want to stick with the least privilege principals and avoid exposing sensitive objects to use cases that would lead to compliance issues or policy violation issues For example, we want to avoid exposing read access to things like the company s balance sheet numbers (compliance) or Social Security numbers of employees (PII) to roles used in a use case such as a Partner Web Service Sales History Query Once we ve defined the distinct set of read-only and read-write roles we will need, we can establish a basic approach for defining these roles based on the nature of the objects involved The next topic to consider is how frequently objects are created or destroyed within object-owner accounts over the lifetime of the application(s) We also need to consider whether object-owner accounts are created and destroyed frequently, as this scenario can be found in many applications If the objects within object-owner accounts are static in nature, the use of a direct object privilege model can be leveraged for the application (read-only and read-write) roles If object-owner accounts will be dynamic or have dynamically created objects, a system privilege model has to be employed for the application (read-only and read-write) roles We are left with a decision to create a finite set of roles for our use cases (or those that we are forced to use) and privilege sets that are based on either direct object privileges or system ANY privileges The decision is really based on the static or dynamic nature of the objects being protected
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