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description =>'Authorizes data administration controls commands for the Sales History realm', enabled =>dbms_macutlg_yes, eval_options =>dbms_macutlg_ruleset_eval_all, audit_options =>dbms_macutlg_ruleset_audit_fail, fail_options =>dbms_macutlg_ruleset_fail_show, fail_message =>NULL, fail_code =>NULL, handler_options =>dbms_macutlg_ruleset_handler_off, handler =>NULL); END; / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed diego_dbvmgr@aos>BEGIN dbms_macadmadd_rule_to_rule_set ( rule_set_name => 'Sales History Data Administration Allowed' , rule_name => 'DELETE By Permanent Employee Only' ); END; / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed
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FIGURE 7-4
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7: Applied Database Vault for Existing Applications
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Next we would update the realm authorization created for the SH_DATA_ADMIN_0101 role in 6 to use the new DBV rule set:
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diego_dbvmgr@aos>BEGIN dbms_macadmupdate_realm_auth ( realm_name => 'Sales History' , grantee => 'SH_DATA_ADMIN_0101' , rule_set_name => 'Sales History Data Administration Allowed' , auth_options => dbms_macutlg_realm_auth_participant ); END; / PL/SQL procedure successfully completed
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Finally, we can test this externally controlled realm authorization using JOE and SALLY as our test accounts for a permanent and contract employee, respectively:
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diego_dbvmgr@aos>CONNECT joe Enter password: Connected global_oid_tree1@aos>SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('SYS_LDAP_USER_DEFAULT','UID') USERNAME SYS_CONTEXT('SYS_LDAP_USER_DEFAULT','EMPLOYEETYPE') EMPLOYEETYPE FROM DUAL; USERNAME EMPLOYEETYPE ---------- --------------joe PERMANENT global_oid_tree1@aos>-- JOE is a permanent employee and therefore global_oid_tree1@aos>-- is authorized for DELETE commands global_oid_tree1@aos>DELETE SHCOSTS WHERE ROWNUM < 2; 1 row deleted global_oid_tree1@aos>-- next test with SALLY, who is a contractor, global_oid_tree1@aos>-- and attempt the same DELETE, which will not global_oid_tree1@aos>-- be authorized according to our DBV Rule global_oid_tree1@aos>CONNECT sally Enter password: Connected global_oid_tree1@aos>SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('SYS_LDAP_USER_DEFAULT','UID') USERNAME SYS_CONTEXT('SYS_LDAP_USER_DEFAULT','EMPLOYEETYPE') EMPLOYEETYPE FROM DUAL; USERNAME EMPLOYEETYPE ---------- --------------sally CONTRACTOR global_oid_tree1@aos>DELETE SHCOSTS WHERE ROWNUM < 2; DELETE SHCOSTS WHERE ROWNUM < 2 * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
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Part II:
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Oracle Database Vault
Identify End User Access Accounts and Roles for DBV SARs
To identify end user access accounts, we can examine the query results for the query used to identify roles with direct object privileges for SELECT, DML, or EXECUTE on database objects in an object-owner account The accounts that have been granted these roles are usually connection pool accounts used for end user access, and the roles themselves may even be used as global enterprise roles with the Oracle EUS technology Due to the sensitive nature of the data accessed by these accounts and roles, you may want to consider the use of DBV SARs instead of traditional database roles This approach allows you to apply the multifactored, rule-based control of the enablement of the role (a privilege set on sensitive objects) using some of the techniques we demonstrated with the roles SALES_MANAGER_APP_ROLE and SALES_WEB_SERVICE_APP_ROLE We queried the view DBA_TAB_PRIVS earlier in the chapter to show accounts and roles with direct object privileges on an object-owner account s objects This is a first pass at the roles we need to consider as end user access accounts We can also identify global schema accounts for EUS and externally identified accounts (for Advanced Security option (ASO)/Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)) using the following query:
sys@aos>SELECT username, password FROM dba_users WHERE password IN ( 'GLOBAL' -- identified globally , 'EXTERNAL' -- identified externally ) ; USERNAME PASSWORD ------------------------------ -----------------------------OPS$JEFFREY EXTERNAL OPS$APPSERVER_1 EXTERNAL GLOBAL_OID_TREE1 GLOBAL GLOBAL_OID_TREE2 GLOBAL 4 rows selected
We can identify which accounts may be used for proxy authentication, which is often used with JDBC connection pools and EUS together, using the following query:
sys@aos>SELECT proxy, client FROM proxy_users ORDER BY 1; PROXY -----------------------------OID_POOL_1 OID_POOL_2 2 rows selected
CLIENT -----------------------------GLOBAL_OID_TREE1 GLOBAL_OID_TREE2
Finally, we can query the existing SARs in a database if we want to convert the application security logic used to enable these roles into DBV rules as part of any overall effort to consolidate security policies:
sys@aos>SELECT * FROM dba_application_roles WHERE schema != 'DVSYS' ORDER BY 1;
7: Applied Database Vault for Existing Applications
ROLE SCHEMA PACKAGE ------------------------------ ------------- --------------CUSTOM_SECAPP_ROLE SECAPP ROLE_SECURITY 1 row selected
Identifying DBV Command Rules from Conditions
To identify which commands in a database are candidates for DBV command rules, ask the following questions: What are the most sensitive transactions in the database that could affect the organization s ability to meet compliance (or other) regulations Which accounts are authorized to establish connections to the database, and what commands can those accounts perform Under what conditions can each command be performed with respect to time, place, and methods (factors)
If the database supports a financial system, sensitive transactions may mean transactions related to sales (revenues) and costs (expenses) If the database supports a human resources system, this may mean transactions involving employee Social Security numbers, salaries, and health benefits DBV command rules can be applied to these sensitive transactions to ensure that you have the highest level of assurance that they are executed within the appropriate context The context refers to the category of factors outlined previously and can help validate whether a transaction was executed from the correct client (machines), software programs (such as PL/SQL code), business rules (such as two-person control), and within the appropriate timeframe(s) One method for determining the most sensitive transactions is to consider the frequency of each transaction with respect to other transactions in the database In a typical financial system, we would expect create or update sales and costs transactions to be executed much more frequently than a create product category transaction We can generate a detailed transaction frequency report that includes the database user and object being accessed in SELECT, DML, and EXECUTE transactions using the audit trail we ve captured This report not only provides an indicator of the most frequently occurring transactions but can also serve as the initial content for a Subject-Verb-Object-Conditions table we can use to develop a fine-grained security profile The following query on the captured audit trail demonstrates this type of transaction frequency report:
sys@aos> SELECT db_user subject, action_name verb, object_schema || ''|| object_name object, COUNT(*) FROM aos_common_audit_trail WHERE object_schema NOT IN ( 'SYS','SYSMAN','DVF','DVSYS','LBACSYS','WK_TEST') AND ( action_name IN ( 'SELECT' ,'UPDATE' ,'DELETE' ,'INSERT' ) OR action_name LIKE '%EXECUTE%') AND object_type NOT LIKE '%PARTITION%'
Part II:
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