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[root@node1 ~]# echo "MARY,DELETE,SH,%,0" > /etc/dbv/external_authorizeconf
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When MARY attempts the same DELETE statement at this point, her attempt is not authorized based on the updated contents of the file:
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global_oid_tree1@aos>CONNECT mary Enter password: Connected mary@aos>DELETE SHCOSTS WHERE ROWNUM < 2; DELETE SHCOSTS WHERE ROWNUM < 2 * ERROR at line 1: ORA-01031: insufficient privileges
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This example demonstrates how you can create an externally controlled decision point using DBV command rules for sensitive transactions using basic OS and Oracle features This type of external control is also useful when coupled with the DBV CONNECT command rule to restrict
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Part II:
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the ability for privileged accounts to log into the database Privileged accounts such as LBACSYS or object-owner accounts such as SH that house sensitive data can be restricted from login in the foreground Make sure you account for any database jobs the account may have by adding a check to the PL/SQL package function DBVEXTEXTERNAL_RULEAUTHORIZED for the value returned from the function
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being NOT NULL to authorize these job sessions
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Identifying DBV Factors Based on Business or System Conditions
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The DBV rules we develop based on business rules or system conditions can leverage DBV factors as we had demonstrated in 6 Some types of factors you will develop can be based on the results of the queries we ran previously on the audit and database configuration You can attempt to have some questions answered by application experts to help uncover these factors
Factors Based on Compliance
Compliance-related factors are often simple constants that drive system behavior (either in code or in DBV rules) as demonstrated with the audit retention period example in 6 In addition to time-based constants that have units such as Number of Days, you may seek input from application experts on event-driven controls that can be controlled with a DBV factor For example, the concept of a quiet period may be useful in application controls and depicts a compliance-sensitive stage or event in the context of the business itself, versus the particular application
Factors Based on Conflict of Interest or Separation of Duty
As you examine the initial Subject-Verb-Object-Condition results created from the preceding sensitive transactions query, you should be asking application experts if a single role or group of accounts is allowed to perform each type of transaction In our example for creating product costs through the SHSALES_TRANSACTIONS package, we defined a rule Is Sales Department Manager that is a perfect example of a separation of duty control Once you ve identified the roles or accounts for each transaction, you can create factors to support these rules that enforce separation of duty on the transactions In the examples of 6, we created factors such as User_Department_Name and Is_Department_Manager to serve this purpose
Factors Based on Organizational Policy
To understand which organizational policy affects the security in a database application, you need to interview application experts The types of questions that you need to ask will be related to data ownership, reporting requirements, and timing of key business events In the example presented in 6, we looked at the product category to determine the manager who could control sales costs or read detailed product data Similar data ownership rules may exist within your organization The controls that enforce these ownership rules can take many forms, such as VPD policy, OLS policy, WHERE conditions in views, PL/SQL application code, and in application code that is external to the database, such as code found in Java or ASP programs
7: Applied Database Vault for Existing Applications
Factors Based on Time
Factors that are based on time are useful in situations where you want to control the timeframe (WHEN) in which a sensitive transaction can take place We can examine both the database audit trail s timestamp and schedule for database batch processing (jobs) to derive time-based factors The following query demonstrates how the audit trail can be examined for time-based factors that could be developed for a sensitive transaction
sys@aos>SELECT db_user subject, action_name verb, object_schema || ''|| object_name object, TO_CHAR ( extended_timestamp, 'DAY HH24:MI') "DAY_TIME", COUNT(*) FROM aos_common_audit_trail WHERE action_name = 'DELETE' AND object_schema = 'SH' AND object_type NOT LIKE '%PARTITION%' GROUP BY db_user , action_name , object_schema || ''|| object_name, TO_CHAR ( extended_timestamp, 'DAY HH24:MI') ORDER BY db_user , action_name , object_schema || ''|| object_name ; SUBJECT VERB OBJECT DAY_TIME COUNT(*) ----------------- ---------- ---------- ----------------- ---------ALAN_ANALYST DELETE SHCOSTS TUESDAY 10:50 1 DEB_DATA_MGR DELETE SHCOSTS TUESDAY 14:39 1 MARY DELETE SHCOSTS SATURDAY 15:36 1 MARY DELETE SHSALES SATURDAY 15:33 1 OPS$APPSERVER_1 DELETE SHSALES WEDNESDAY 14:07 1 5 rows selected
The DELETE transactions that occurred on TUESDAY and WEDNESDAY may be out of the normal or expected time frame for this type of transaction This may point to a need to create a factor and rule for the specific time window in which a DELETE is authorized This type of control is similar to the one we demonstrated with the SYSTEMAUD$ table in 6 We can also identify additional areas for time-based factors by looking at the intervals in which database jobs are executing The PL/SQL programs that are executing are typically associated with the business events that an application supports, such as the close of a month s financial process The following query will help you identify the time frame the job intervals in which these types of PL/SQL programs are run:
sys@aos>SET SERVEROUTPUT ON sys@aos>BEGIN FOR c_jobs IN ( SELECT cowner owner , 'Job #:' || TO_CHAR(job) job_name , interval# repeat_interval , what program
Part II:
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