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Oracle Database Security New Features
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NOTE Data encrypted with the private key can be decrypted only with the public key, and vice versa Private and public are used to describe the keys because it is typical for the public key to be accessible to many people The private key remains a secret known only to the owner As long as the private key remains private, this option works beautifully PKE, therefore, solves the key distribution problem For two parties to communicate, they need access only to each other s public keys Figure 2-2 illustrates how PKE can be used to send a secret message between two parties To ensure that the recipient (the server in the figure) is the only one that receives the message, the message is encrypted with the recipient s public key As such, only the recipient, the General, will be able to decrypt the message because the only key that can be used is his private key (which only he has) Trying to decrypt the message with an incorrect key yields gibberish An interloper will be unsuccessful in decrypting the message because he or she will not have the private key Note that the public key can t be used to decrypt the message that was also encrypted with the public key PKE provides another complementary capability The private key can be used as an authentication method from the sender As Figure 2-3 illustrates, a sender can encrypt a message with his or her private key The recipient can use the sender s public key to decrypt the message If the message decrypts, the sender s identity is authenticated because only the sender has access to his private key and so only he could have encrypted the message Since our general was able
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PKE uses two complementary keys to pass sensitive data securely
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PKE can be used to authenticate parties to one another
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to decrypt Caesar s message using Caesar s public key, then he is assured that the message was sent by Caesar (provided he is keeping his private key private!)
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Unfortunately, the public key algorithms require larger keys to achieve the same strength received from their symmetric key counterparts Consequently, the public key algorithms perform more slowly and are more computationally expensive Today, public key and symmetric key encryption are used together as a part of the standard SSL network protocol SSL is the de facto standard encryption mechanism for data on the Internet Due to its superior performance characteristics, symmetric key encryption is used within SSL for bulk data encryption To transport the symmetric keys securely between the two parties, PKE is used to encrypt the symmetric keys In Figures 2-2 and 2-3, the secret message is actually the symmetric encryption key Public key technology gets more than its fair share of the attention considering that proportionately it actually encrypts a lot less data than symmetric key encryption This is because the administrators and users have to interface directly with the public key technology The symmetric key algorithms are neatly concealed and hidden from view
Part I:
Oracle Database Security New Features
Understanding and acknowledging the use of public key and symmetric key encryption is important to the Oracle Database because the database supports only symmetric key algorithms The performance and efficiency of symmetric key algorithms make them a natural choice for the database Unfortunately, this leaves open the issue of key management, which is addressed later in this chapter
Encrypting Data Stored in the Database
Understanding that the primary goal of encryption is to protect data in an unprotected medium, you might be wondering if it makes sense to encrypt data in the database at all As you probably expected, this book emphasizes making the database a more secure medium So, if it is very secure, why encrypt It turns out there are valid reasons for wanting to encrypt data stored in the database First, you might be forced to comply with a regulation (legal, industrial, or organizational directive) that states that certain classes of data must be stored using encryption This is the case with PCI for credit card data, and many companies have developed internal rules for what data must be encrypted when stored In addition, the privacy laws of several states, such as California s SB 1386, remove the requirement for notification of victims of data privacy breaches if the data in question was encrypted So in some cases, we are told we must encrypt out data, and in others it may be in our best interest in protecting corporate reputation, brand value, and customer relationship A second valid requirement for encryption is assurance that data can be protected throughout its life cycle Think about data storage as a life cycle: data is created, stored, modified, moved, backed up, and deleted over time At some points in the life cycle, data can be found outside of the protected medium of the database, as data is moved from the database to tape or another system for backup or disaster recovery purposes Employing encryption in the database provides a level of security that can be maintained throughout the entire storage life cycle Again, we must think of encryption as one layer in a defense-in-depth strategy that has multiple layers of defense By storing sensitive data in the clear, we have missed a critical part of a comprehensive security strategy For example, historically, it might be the case that policy dictates that database administrators (DBAs) must not have access to sensitive data This is often a requirement when trying to protect privacy-related data and is a valid security concern Before version 102, encryption was the only way to keep data protected from DBAs Their privileges allowed them to select data from any table and could be controlled only with the use of auditing (a compensation, rather than proactive control) Many organizations used DBMS_CRYPTO to selectively encrypt and store highly-sensitive data in the database, protecting the contents of the encrypted data from the DBA This was a difficult and costly method to protect data and can now be addressed with the release of Database Vault, which separates the administrative functions data into access realms, as you will learn more about in 4 In summary, the two driving requirements for storing data in the database are mandates and protection throughout the data life cycle Next, you will see the technical vulnerability that s at the root of both requirements
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