Oracle Database Security New Features
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Data changes The ability to capture data values as they change The updated values are shown in the redo logs You therefore must enable Archive Log Mode to ensure that you extract data out of the logs before they are overwritten Using redo logs saves you from having to capture data value changes yourself (often attempted as a collection of table triggers that copy the :OLD and :NEW values to custom built application audit tables)
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A final point regarding auditing becomes apparent with the preceding parenthetical comment While the Oracle Audit Vault SDK is not yet available, you can still capture your application audits by turning on auditing for the tables and objects your application manipulates The auditing functions will pick up changes made by your application Both OSAUD and DBAUD will capture those changes REDO will capture the data values that were changed Table 3-2 shows three types of Oracle database collectors An X indicates the actions the auditing will capture
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Collection Agent Location If a collection agent is installed on a separate server (that is, not
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on the server running the database being audited), then the collectors cannot read any audit files written to the file system This configuration therefore obviates the OSAUD and REDO collectors In this case, the audit source will be only the database tables (AUD$, FGA_LOG$, DVSYS AUDIT_TRAIL$) that can be accessed remotely via Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) When Oracle RAC is being used, only one instance of the DBAUD and REDO collector is required to collect audit activity For auditing in a RAC architecture, gathering operating system activity requires an OSAUD collector on each node participating in the cluster to audit operating system activity The advantage to installing the collection agent on the audit server is that you end up with a single consolidated environment for your auditing; however, it won t allow collection of OSAUD and REDO From a performance perspective, Oracle recommends using the OSAUD collector as it has been proven to work much faster than the DBAUD collector
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Audit Operation SELECT DML DDL FGA DBV audits Before/after values Success and failure sql text SYS auditing Comments
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OSAUD X X X X
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DBAUD X X X X X
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REDO X X
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X X X (for Sys) X Fast, protected from DBA, managed outside DB Uses standard auditing tools that run reports based on SQL X X X Captures before/ after values
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TABLE 3-2 Audit Collector Attributes
3: Applied Auditing and Audit Vault
Audit Vault Collection Agent Install Recommendation
Architecturally, the Audit Vault collection agent may be installed on the same host as the audit source, the same host as the audit server, or on a separate server altogether If you are using OS auditing or want access to the redo logs, the Audit Vault collection agent must be installed on the same server as the audit source From a best practices perspective, auditing to the OS is the best option, because auditing to database audit tables requires database transactions This means that insert statements into the database tables occurs and redo information is generated for the audit itself The redo logs would then show the event that caused the audit to occur and a record of the audit being written about the same event Depending on how much you audit, your redo logs can get quite full of such redundant audit information This not only takes up database storage, but it requires extra database resources to perform the audit For Audit Vault collection agents, this means the OSAUD, which has two limitations: The REDO Collector is the only way to capture the data changes that is, the BEFORE and AFTER values that were a result of a database action such as an UPDATE The other limitation occurs because the DBV audits are not written to OS files If you want to capture SYS actions and all DDL, DML, FGA, Database Vault, and BEFORE/ AFTER values, all three collectors may be used Thus guarantees that all SYS actions, standard audits, and FGA audits are captured (via AUDIT_TRAIL=OS for standard auditing and XML auditing for FGA); all DBV audits are captured with DBAUD, and the REDO captures the data value changes The Audit Vault Server brings these otherwise disparate logs together in the warehouse so that you can see who accessed what, when, and how