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Enhanced and centralized enterprise security that accounts for regulatory compliance controls Universal access to data across the enterprise, without inefficient data movement Reduced inconsistencies due to fewer instances of data duplication
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Simplification of the security management of your Oracle database and applications as centralized policies are not coded into each application To demonstrate how we meet these objectives for consolidation, consider the sample schemas that are available with Oracle Database The samples include the following schemas (a partial list): Human Resources (HR) Order Entry (OE) Sales History (SH)
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In many enterprises, this type of data is kept in separate databases and on separate servers This data as shown Figure 5-1
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FIGURE 5-1
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When viewed this way, it is easy to see the costs associated with maintaining these databases with respect to the power consumption, hardware costs, labor costs, software license costs, and recurring maintenance fees With consolidation efforts in an enterprise, you can reduce the costs by hosting the databases on a shared server platform with a smaller number of administrators, as shown in Figure 5-2 The challenge in this consolidated database architecture then becomes how to keep database administrators of the Human Resources (HR) data from accessing or manipulating the Sales History (SH) data, or vice versa To demonstrate, log into the database using the SYSTEM account, a well-known Oracle database account The SYSTEM account has been granted the powerful DBA role and that role is granted many ANY privileges for TABLE objects:
system@aos>-- Display the system (ANY) privileges the account has system@aos>select privilege name from session_privs where privilege like '%TABLE%' or privilege like '%GRANT%' order by 1; NAME ---------------------------------------ALTER ANY TABLE ALTER TABLESPACE BACKUP ANY TABLE COMMENT ANY TABLE CREATE ANY TABLE CREATE TABLE CREATE TABLESPACE DELETE ANY TABLE DROP ANY TABLE DROP TABLESPACE FLASHBACK ANY TABLE GRANT ANY ROLE GRANT ANY PRIVILEGE
Part II:
Oracle Database Vault
GRANT ANY OBJECT PRIVILEGE INSERT ANY TABLE LOCK ANY TABLE MANAGE TABLESPACE SELECT ANY TABLE UNDER ANY TABLE UNLIMITED TABLESPACE UPDATE ANY TABLE 18 rows selected system@aos>-- Attempt to query the sales data using system@aos>-- the SELECT ANY TABLE privilege system@aos>select cust_id, amount_sold from shsales; CUST_ID AMOUNT_SOLD ---------- ----------1258 2375 1714 2375 1842 2375 system@aos>-- Grant object privileges on the table system@aos>-- to another account system@aos>grant select on shsales to scott; Grant succeeded system@aos>-- Attempt to query the sales data using direct object system@aos>-- privileges granted to the account SCOTT system@aos>connect scott Enter password: Connected scott@aos>select cust_id, amount_sold from shsales; CUST_ID AMOUNT_SOLD ---------- ----------1258 2375 1714 2375 1842 2375
As you can see, the SYSTEM account has privileges not only to read or write the Sales History data using privileges such as SELECT ANY TABLE and UPDATE ANY TABLE, but the account can modify the structures in which the data is stored using a privilege such as ALTER ANY TABLE The same types of system ANY privileges are usually granted to named database administrator accounts, providing the same unbounded access to application data We must introduce a DBV realm around the SH and HR schemas to enforce the separation of duty and mitigate compliance concerns over unprotected access to PII or the integrity of financial numbers used in an audit
Realm Protection Patterns
A DBV realm can be defined as a boundary around all the objects in a database schema, a subset of objects in a database schema, or a collection of objects in multiple schemas These example usages are shown in Figure 5-3
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FIGURE 5-3
Order Management realm (subset of object owner s objects)
In Figure 5-3, a realm may be defined for objects in several schemas to support the concept of an order management application The application may use a privileged account to access sensitive customer purchasing information and PII information for employees In Figure 5-4, you can see a realm was created for a subset of the HR schema, where tables such as EMPLOYEES and EMP_DETAILS_VIEW can contain PII information and tables such as JOBS and JOB_HISTORY can include personal information such as an employee s salary In Figure 5-5, an entire Sales History schema is protected and may contain sensitive information used for SOX compliance and auditing
FIGURE 5-4
Human Resources realm (multiple objects, multiple object owners)
Part II:
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