how to generate barcode in c# asp.net DIFFERENTIAL GPS in Software

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88 DIFFERENTIAL GPS
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2 0 -2 -4 0 55 500 1000 1500 Time, t, sec 2000 2500
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50 45 40 35 30 0 500 1000 1500 Time, t, sec 2000 2500
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Figure 816: Di erential corrections from Example 86 as computed by eqns (8134 8137) number of cycles to add to the correction This integer must then be kept constant and added to all subsequently broadcast corrections for satellite i until the satellite is no longer available to the base receiver Two common approaches are to select the integer so that the initial phase correction is either near zero or near the corresponding code correction The actual value of the integer is not important, as long as it is kept constant If the base receiver loses lock to a satellite, it must have a means to communicate that fact to the rovers So that each rover can recompute the integer ambiguities for that satellite Example 86 Figure 816 shows example di erential GPS corrections as computed by eqns (8134 8137) after removing an estimate of the base receiver clock bias and selecting the initial base integer ambiguities such that the code and phase measurements are approximately the same at t = 0 At t = 0, the L1 corrections start near -15 m and the L2 corrections start near -30 m The phase corrections are drawn with a narrower line than the pseudorange corrections The time correlated nature of the corrections is clearly shown in the gure In addition, over the duration of this experiment, as the satellite descends, the divergence between the code and carrier corrections is clearly exhibited
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At each rover, the di erential corrections for each of the observables is added to the corresponding rover observables to compute single-di erenced
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CHAPTER 8 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
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L1 and L2 range and phase observables: i ro (t) = 1 i ro (t) 2 i ro (t) 1 i ro (t) 2 = r1 (t) + i (t) 1 2 r (t) + i (t)
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(8139) (8140) (8141) (8142)
1 = r1 (t) + i (t) = r (t) + i (t)
The rover then uses these single-di erenced observables in place of the original measurements in the solution approach of Section 822 This solution gives the full Earth relative rover location, not the base relative rover location; however, errors in the known base location will directly a ect the rover position solution The measurement error models are i ro (t) 1 i ro (t) 2 1 i ro (t) 1 2 i ro (t) 2 f2 i i I + c tro + ro f1 r f1 i i = R(pr , pi ) + Ir + c tro + ro f2 f2 i i i = R(pr , pi ) Ir + c tro + ro + N1 1 f1 f1 i i i = R(pr , pi ) Ir + c tro + ro + N2 2 f2 = R(pr , pi ) + (8143) (8144) (8145) (8146)
i i i where N1 and N2 are unknown integers and Ir is the residual ionospheric error between the rover and base To successfully implement a range space DGPS system, the base station must, at a minimum, broadcast the following set of information for each satellite: satellite id, range and phase corrections, ephemeris set identi er, and a reference time A roving receiver then selects the most appropriate set of satellites for its circumstances The ephemeris set identi er is crucial because the satellite clock and position errors are distinct for each ephemeris set When a new ephemeris set becomes available, for practical reasons, it is also standard practice to send corrections for both the new and old ephemeris set for some short period of time to allow rovers to download the new ephemeris set
Example 87 This example demonstrates the accuracy di erence between GPS and range space DGPS processing In this example, the rover and base receivers are connected to the same antenna; therefore, multipath errors will cancel In addition, the origin of the local tangent plane coordinate system is the antenna location; hence, the correct position estimate is (0, 0, 0)
88 DIFFERENTIAL GPS The measurement matrix H for this 4513 3543 5018 5502 H= 6827 6594 3505 4867 data epoch is calculated to be 8190 10000 6674 10000 3147 10000 8001 10000
The pseudoranges corrected for satellite clock bias and the expected range to the origin of the tangent plane reference frame are 331675 326847 r = 333098 334688 where = |pr =0 Using the equation xr = H H
H r ,
the GPS estimates of tangent plane position and clock bias are 2784 (x xo ) (y yo ) 6986 (z zo ) = 7667 c tr 324177 Note these positioning results are from the era when selective availability was active The L1 pseudorange di erential corrections received at the rover from the base station are 1252 6086 1 = 093 1724 Using the equation xr = H H
H( r + 1 ),
to recalculate the local tangent plane position and clock bias error for the rover receiver yields 037 (x xo ) (y yo ) 041 (z zo ) = 044 c tr 322967
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