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Practical auditing in SQL Server 2008
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The T-SQL code in listing 5 generates some events that will be captured by our audit in order for us to have some activity to view.
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Listing 5 Creating events for the server audit specification
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EXEC sp_configure 'show advanced options',1 RECONFIGURE GO EXEC sp_configure 'clr enabled',1 RECONFIGURE GO
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Viewing audit events
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To view the audit events that are written to the Application or Security Log, we can use either Windows Event Viewer or SSMS. When viewing events using Event Viewer, it s helpful to create a filter for only Success and Failure audits, to cut down the number of records. When viewing the audit in SSMS, this is automatically done for you. Follow these steps to view the events in SSMS:
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Expand the Security top-level node in SSMS. Expand the Audits node and right-click the ApplicationLog Server Audit. Select View Audit Logs, as shown in figure 8.
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Viewing audit logs using SSMS
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This launches the SSMS LogFile Viewer, which enables you to easily review audit events written to any of the available server audit targets, as shown in figure 9. To view events from server audits that use the File target, we can use a new built-in system function called sys.fn_get_audit_file. This function allows you to extract the audit events from one or more audit files in a tabular format that can be queried with standard T-SQL or loaded into a table for further analysis. Listing 6 demonstrates how to query the sys.server_file_audits catalog view to obtain the audit folder and pass that to the sys.fn_get_audit_file function in order to view the audit events in SSMS.
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Listing 6 Viewing audit events from T-SQL
DECLARE @folder VARCHAR(255) SELECT @folder = log_file_path + '*' FROM sys.server_file_audits WHERE name = 'ServerAuditFile' SELECT * FROM sys.fn_get_audit_file(@folder,DEFAULT,DEFAULT) ORDER BY event_time DESC
Server audit specifications
Viewing audit logs in the Log File Viewer
A number of new catalog views expose metadata about server audit specifications. The query in listing 7 demonstrates some of them and lists all server audit specifications, along with their properties.
Listing 7 Viewing details of all server audit specifications
SELECT sp.name AS ServerAuditSpecification, CASE WHEN sp.is_state_enabled =1 THEN 'Y' ELSE 'N' END AS SpecificationEnabled, d.AuditActions, a.name AS ServerAudit, a.type_desc AS ServerAuditType, CASE WHEN a.is_state_enabled =1 THEN 'Y' ELSE 'N' END AS AuditEnabled, st.status_desc AS AuditStatus, a.queue_delay AS QueueDelay, a.on_failure_desc AS OnFailure, st.audit_file_path AS CurrentFile, f.max_file_size AS MaxFileSize, f.max_rollover_files AS MaxRolloverFiles, CASE WHEN f.reserve_disk_space = 0 THEN 'N' WHEN f.reserve_disk_space = 1 THEN 'Y' END AS ReserveSpace FROM sys.server_audit_specifications AS sp JOIN sys.server_audits a ON sp.audit_guid = a.audit_guid JOIN sys.dm_server_audit_status st ON a.audit_id = st.audit_id LEFT JOIN sys.server_file_audits f
Practical auditing in SQL Server 2008
ON a.audit_id = f.audit_id LEFT JOIN (SELECT server_specification_id, STUFF((SELECT ',' + audit_action_name AS [text()] FROM sys.server_audit_specification_details AS d2 WHERE d2.server_specification_id = d1.server_specification_id ORDER BY audit_action_name FOR xml path('')), 1, 1, '') AS AuditActions FROM sys.server_audit_specification_details AS d1 GROUP BY server_specification_id) AS d ON sp.server_specification_id = d.server_specification_id ORDER BY ServerAuditSpecification
Database audit specifications
Database audit specifications define the audit action groups, individual audit actions, and filters that you use to audit events at the database level, as well as the server audit they belong to. There can be a maximum of one database audit specification per database per server audit. You can create multiple database audit specifications for a database as long as each one uses a separate server audit.
Creating database audit specifications
In the following examples, we ll create a number of database audit specifications for the AdventureWorks2008 sample database using a new file-based server audit.
NOTE
You can download the latest version of the AdventureWorks 2008 database from Codeplex: http://www.codeplex.com/MSFTDBProdSamples/ Release/ProjectReleases.aspx.
We ll create a new file-based server audit that we ll use for our database audit specification. The T-SQL code is shown in listing 8.
Listing 8 Creating a server audit for a database audit specification
CREATE SERVER AUDIT [AWDMLAudit] TO FILE ( FILEPATH = 'C:\Audit\DB\AdventureWorks\AWDMLAudit' ,MAXSIZE = 100 MB ,MAX_ROLLOVER_FILES = 0 ,RESERVE_DISK_SPACE = OFF ) WITH ( QUEUE_DELAY = 2000 ,ON_FAILURE = CONTINUE ) ALTER SERVER AUDIT [AWDMLAudit] WITH(STATE=ON) GO
We ll now create a new database audit specification to audit the DML (Select, Insert, Update, and Delete) events for the HumanResources.EmployeePayHistory and Sales.CreditCard tables. As for the audit action groups available in server audit
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