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I should log this error: Divide by zero error encountered.
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This is typically used to handle any errors in the code that logs the error information to a custom error table.
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TRY...CATCH and transactions
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A common use for a TRY...CATCH block is to handle transaction processing. A common pattern for this is shown in listing 9.
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Listing 9 Transaction processing in a TRY...CATCH block
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BEGIN TRY BEGIN TRANSACTION INSERT INTO dbo.invoice_header (invoice_number, client_number) VALUES (2367, 19) INSERT INTO dbo.invoice_detail (invoice_number, line_number, part_number) VALUES (2367, 1, 84367) COMMIT TRANSACTION END TRY BEGIN CATCH
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Error handling in SQL Server and applications
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IF @@TRANCOUNT > 0 ROLLBACK TRANSACTION -- And rethrow the error END CATCH
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Remember that the CATCH block completely consumes the error; therefore it is important to return some type of error or message back to the calling program.
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The examples in this section use C# as the client application. Any .NET client application that supports try...catch constructs will behave in a similar fashion. The key points to learn here are which .NET classes are involved in error handling and what methods and properties they expose. When a .NET application executes a SQL statement that causes an error, it throws a SqlException. This can be caught using a try...catch block like we saw previously. The SQL Server exception could also be caught by catching a plain Exception, but the SqlException class provides additional SQL Server specific properties. A simple example of this in C# is shown in listing 10.
Listing 10 Outputting SQL Server specific error properties with SqlException
using System.Data; using System.Data.SqlClient; class Program { SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection("..."); SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand("RAISERROR('My Error', 11, 1)", conn); try { cmd.Connection.Open(); cmd.ExecuteNonQuery(); Console.WriteLine("No error returned"); } catch (SqlException sqlex) { Console.WriteLine("Error Message: " + sqlex.Message); Console.WriteLine("Error Severity: {0}", sqlex.Class.ToString()); Console.WriteLine("Line Number: {0}", sqlex.LineNumber.ToString()); } }
This returns the following result:
Error Message: My Error Error Severity: 11 Line Number: 1
Exceptions with a severity of 10 or less don t trigger the catch block on the client. The connection is closed if the severity level is 20 or higher; it normally remains open if the severity level is 19 or less. You can use RAISERROR to generate severities of 20 or higher and it ll close the connection and fire the try...catch block on the client.
Handling SQL Server errors on the client
The error returned typically indicates that the connection was closed rather than the error text you specified. The SqlException class inherits from the System.SystemException and includes many properties that are specific to .NET. Some key SQL Server specific properties of the SqlException class are shown in table 1.
Table 1
SQLException class properties
Description Error severity level Line number in the batch or stored procedure where the error occurred Description of the error SQL Server error number Stored procedure name where the error occurred SQL Server instance that generated the error Provider that generated the error (for example, .Net SqlClient Data Provider) SQL Server error state (the third parameter of RAISERROR)
Property Class LineNumber Message Number Procedure Server Source State
Another interesting property of the SqlException class is the Errors property. This is a collection of SqlError objects. The SqlError class includes only the SQL Server specific properties from the SqlException object that are listed in table 1. Because a batch of SQL can generate multiple SQL Server errors, an application needs to check whether multiple errors have occurred. The first error in the Errors property will always match the error in the SqlExcpetion s properties. Listing 11 is an example.
Listing 11 Handling multiple errors with the Errors property
using System.Data; using System.Data.SqlClient; class Program { static void Main(string[] args) { SqlConnection conn = new SqlConnection(@"Server=L60\YUKON; Integrated Security=SSPI"); SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand( @"RAISERROR('My Error', 11, 17) SELECT 1/0 SELECT * FROM dbo.BadTable", conn); try { cmd.Connection.Open(); cmd.ExecuteReader();
Error handling in SQL Server and applications
Console.WriteLine("No error returned"); } catch (SqlException sqlex) { for (int i = 0; i < sqlex.Errors.Count; i++) { Console.WriteLine("Error #{0}: {1}", i.ToString(), sqlex.Errors[i].Message); } } } }
This returns the following result:
Error #0: My Error Error #1: Divide by zero error encountered. Error #2: Invalid object name 'dbo.BadTable'.
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