print barcode c# Wiring the Limit Switches in Software

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Wiring the Limit Switches
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Cut a piece of 2-strand connector wire to a length of 6 inches and solder the wire to connect the two limit switches, as shown in Figure 450 Cut another piece of the 2-strand connector wire to a length of 3-1/2 inches Solder one end of each wire to a 2-post female header connector, and the opposite ends to the left leg limit
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FIGURE 449
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Limit switch hot glued to part E
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Amphibionics
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FIGURE 450
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Limit switch wiring diagram
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switch, as shown in Figure 450 The header will be plugged into the 5 VDC and the GND connector on the main controller circuit board later in the chapter Next, cut two single-strand connector wires to a length of 5-1/2 inches Solder one end of each wire to a single-post female header connector, and the other end of each wire to the left and right limit switches, as shown in Figure 450 The limit switch connectors will eventually be attached to microcontroller inputs Figure 451 shows the connectors wired to the limit switches Fabricate a 6-volt battery pack holder using 1/16-inch thick aluminum by following the cutting, drilling, and bending guide shown in Figure 452 When the battery pack holder is finished, attach it to the robot s body using a 6/32-inch 1/2-inch machine screw, lock washer, and nut Figure 453 shows the completed battery pack holder fastened to the robot s body At this point, the robot s mechanical construction is complete The next section of 4 will focus on the electronics
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4 / Frogbotic: Build Your Own Robotic Frog
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FIGURE 451
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Limit switches wired to connectors
FIGURE 452
Cutting, drilling, and bending guide for the battery pack holder
Amphibionics
FIGURE 453
Battery pack holder fastened to the robot s body
Frogbotic s Main Controller Board
This section focuses on the construction of the robot s main controller circuit and the fabrication of the printed circuit board (PCB) Table 43 lists all of the parts necessary to build the controller board All of the robot s functions are controlled by a Microchip PIC 16F84 microcontroller The microcontroller is an entire computer on a chip, and makes it possible to eliminate a large amount of hardware that would otherwise be required The microcontroller serves as the robot s brain, controlling and managing all functions, sensors, and reflexes The 16F84 microcontroller that we are using will be clocked at 4 MHz, and operates on a 5-volt DC supply, produced from a 78L05 voltage regulator, with the source being a 6-volt battery pack The two leg servos are also powered by the same 6-volt DC battery pack As you can see from the schematic shown in Figure 454, the input/output (I/O) lines are
4 / Frogbotic: Build Your Own Robotic Frog
FIGURE 454
Frogbotic s main controller board schematic
used as inputs and outputs to monitor the robot s leg position limit switches, turn on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and output sound to a piezo speaker Each of the controller board s functions will be covered in detail when programming the robot
Part
Quantity
Description
TABLE 43
Parts List for Frogbotic s Main Controller Board
Semiconductors U1 U2 1 1 78L05 5V regulator PIC 16F84 flash microcontroller mounted in socket 2N3904 NPN transistor Red light-emitting diode
(continued on next page)
Q1 D1
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TABLE 43
Parts List for Frogbotic s Main Controller Board (continued)
Part D2 Resistors R1 R2, R3, R4 R5 Capacitors C1 C2, C3
Quantity 1
Description Green light-emitting diode
1 3 1
47 K 1K 100
1/4-watt resistor 1/4-watt resistor 1/4-watt resistor
01 f capacitor 22 pf
Miscellaneous JP1 JP5, JP8 JP6, JP7 Battery 6 4 2 3-post header connector 25 mm spacing 2-post header connector 25 mm spacing 2-post header connector 25 mm spacing connectors 4-MHz crystal Standard piezoelectric element 4-cell AA battery holder 6V output 9V-type battery strap 18-pin IC socket soldered to PC board U2 See details in chapter
Y1 Piezo buzzer
Battery holder 1 Battery strap IC socket 1 1
Printed circuit 1 board
Creating Frogbotic s Printed Circuit Board
To fabricate the PCB, photocopy the artwork in Figure 455 onto a transparency Make sure that the photocopy is the exact size of the original For convenience, you can download the file from the
4 / Frogbotic: Build Your Own Robotic Frog
PCB foil pattern artwork
author s Web site, located at wwwthinkboticscom, and simply print the file onto a transparency using a laser or ink-jet printer with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi After the artwork has been successfully transferred to a transparency, use the techniques outlined in 2 to create a board A 4-inch 6-inch presensitized positive copper board is ideal When you place the transparency on the copper board, it should be oriented exactly as in Figure 455 Circuit board drilling and parts placement Use a 1/32-inch drill bit to drill all of the component holes on the PCB Drill the holes for the voltage regulator (U1) with a 3/64-inch drill bit Use Table 43 and Figure 456 to place the parts on the component side of the circuit board Note that the PIC 16F84 microcontroller (U2) is mounted in an 18-pin IC socket The 18-pin socket is soldered to the PC board and the PIC is inserted after it has been programmed Use a fine-toothed saw to cut the board along the guide lines and drill the mounting holes using a 6/32-inch drill bit Figure 457 shows the finished main controller board Check the finished board for any missed or cold soldered connections, and verify that all the components have been included The
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