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FIGURE 633
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L298 bidirectional motor controller
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How it works The L298 contains two motor control circuits that are referred to as the H-Bridge This method of controlling DC motors gets its name because the four transistors used to control the motors are configured to form an H with the motor being at the center Figure 634 shows the basic schematic for a typical HBridge The H-Bridge works by having the control circuitry or microcontroller turn on only two of the transistors at a time In this example, when transistors Q1 and Q4 are turned on, the motor will spin in one direction When transistors Q2 and Q3 are turned on, the motor will spin in the opposite direction When all of the transistors are turned off, the motor is stopped Table 63 is a truth table showing the state of each transistor and the motor direction Note that if transistors Q1 and Q3 (or Q2 and Q4) were turned on at the same time, there would be a short circuit across the battery For this reason, the L298 has internal logic that prevents this from happening
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Motor direction Stopped Forward Reverse
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TABLE 63
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H-Bridge Truth Table
Amphibionics
FIGURE 634
A typical H-Bridge DC motor control configuration
With the L298, each bridge has three control inputs made up of an enable line and two control lines In our robot application, these inputs will be controlled by the programmable interface controller (PIC) The PIC will interpret the data received by the radio link and then issue the proper motor commands, depending on the information sent from the hand remote control An external bridge of diodes is required when inductive loads like DC motors are being driven The specifics of controlling the motors will be described during the programming section Radio transmitter and receiver modules The robot will be remotely controlled using a pair of 433-MHz transmitter and receiver modules The modules that will be used are the TXLC-434 transmitter and the RXLC-434 receiver, available from Reynolds Electronics at wwwrentroncom The modules are based around Linx Technologies (wwwlinxtechnologiescom) LC series transmitter modules The staff at Reynolds Electronics have made using
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these devices very easy by mounting the modules on small circuit boards with connectors and a place to solder on the antennas (which are included with the modules) The LC Series is ideally suited for volume use in applications such as remote control, security, identification, robotics, and periodic data transfer Packaged in a compact SMD package, the LC transmitter utilizes a highly optimized SAW architecture to achieve an unmatched blend of performance, size, efficiency, and cost When paired with a matching LC series receiver, a highly reliable wireless link is formed, capable of transferring serial data at distances in excess of 300 feet No external RF components, except an antenna, are required, making design integration straightforward The features include: low cost, no external RF components required, ultra-low power consumption, compact surface-mount package, stable SAW based architecture, support data rates to 5,000 bps, wide supply range (27-52 vdc), direct serial interface, low harmonics, and no production tuning The receiver module pinout diagram is shown in Figure 635 Using the module to receive information from the transmitter will be described when programming is covered
FIGURE 635
Receiver module pinout diagram
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Creating the Main Controller Printed Circuit Board
To fabricate the controller printed circuit board (PCB), photocopy the artwork in Figure 636 onto a transparency Make sure that the photocopy is the exact size of the original For convenience, you can download the file from the author s Web site, located at wwwthinkboticscom, and simply print the file onto a transparency using a laser or ink-jet printer with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi After the artwork has been successfully transferred to a transparency, use the techniques outlined in 2 to create a board A 4-inch 6-inch presensitized positive copper board is ideal When you place the transparency on the copper board, it should be oriented exactly the same as in Figure 636 It would be a good idea to create the circuit board for the remote control at the same time
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