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FIGURE 71
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A turtle and its robotic counterpart
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The turtle and its behavior is the inspiration for the robot in this chapter At first I wanted the turtle to be a walking robot, much like the biological version, but decided that an inexpensive, wheeled robot would be a great platform on which to base experiments Figure 71 shows a real turtle and the robotic version that will be built during this chapter
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Overview of the Turtletron Project
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The robot turtle that will be built and programmed in this chapter has a circular base and achieves locomotion using two wheels, each one powered by direct current (DC) motors and gearboxes The robot will operate in autonomous mode or under remote control by a human operator Turtletron will use an ultrasonic range finder and a linear shaft encoder to map its surrounding area during autonomous mode, and will also use the sonar to inhibit movement if an operator is directing the robot into an obstacle during remote control The robot will also be equipped with a linear shaft encoder that will give it the ability to keep track of the distance that
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7 / Turtletron: Build Your Own Robotic Turtle
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Turtletron with remote control
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it has traveled and to create maps of its surroundings To save time and money on construction, this robot will use the same main controller circuit board and transmitter device that we built during the last crocodile robot project The only difference with the main controller board will be with the software of the PIC 16F84 The robot will also adopt the wireless data link that was utilized in the last chapter The robot with the remote control is shown in Figure 72
The History of Robotic Turtles
William Grey Walter built the first robotic turtles in the late 1940s His work in robotics was an extension of his research in neurophysiology Walter s studies of the brain and its neural networks led him to wonder about what type of behavior could be created using just a few neurons To experiment with this concept, in 1948, Walter built a three-wheeled turtle-like mobile robot that
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measured 12 inches in height and 18 inches in length Amazingly this robot used just two electronic neurons, but exhibited interesting and complex behaviors The first two robots were named Elmer and Elsie (ELectroMEchanical Robot, Light Sensitive) He later named the style of robots Machina Speculatrix after observing the complex behavior they exhibited The robot s nervous system consisted of two sensors connected to two neurons One sensor was a light-sensitive resistor mounted onto the shaft of the front wheel steering-drive assembly This arrangement ensured that the photosensitive resistor was always facing in the direction that the robot was moving The second sensor was a bump switch attached to the robot s outer cover The three wheels of the robot were arranged in a triangular configuration The front wheel had a motorized steering assembly that could rotate a full 360 degrees in one direction The front wheel also contained a drive wheel for propulsion Figure 73 shows a robot turtle built by Walter during the 1940s This robot is now on display at the Smithsonian
FIGURE 73
Robot tortoise built by robotics pioneer William Grey Walter in 1948
7 / Turtletron: Build Your Own Robotic Turtle
The robot exhibited four modes of operation described below 1 Search The room is at low light level or darkness The robot responds by searching for a light source The steering motor is on full speed and the drive motor is at half speed 2 Move The robot found light The robot responds by turning the steering motor off and the drive motor on at half speed 3 Dazzle The robot encounters bright light The robot responds by setting the steering motor to half speed, while the drive motor is reversed 4 Touch The robot hits an obstacle The robot responds by setting the steering motor to full speed, with the drive motor reversed In the 1950s, W Grey Walter wrote two Scientific American articles ( An Imitation of Life, May 1950; A Machine That Learns, August 1951) and a book titled The Living Brain (Norton, New York, 1963) Walter reported, The strange richness provided by this particular sort of permutation introduces right away one of the aspects of animal behavior and human psychology that Machina Speculatrix is designed to illustrate: the uncertainty, randomness, free will or independence so strikingly absent in most well designed machines Although the robot we will be building is turtle-like, it is not intended to recreate any of the experiments of W Grey Walter, although you could easily implement the sensors and program the microcontroller to do so
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