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Cable Plant Testing and Maintenance Procedures
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The proper methodology is to dispatch a technical repair crew to the general area of the problem while recording calls from the affected area The repair crews should have available copies of system maps, either on paper or on disk, which can be shown on a laptop computer monitor in the repair truck If the affected area is con ned to a system power supply, then the repair crew should check the status of the unit If the supply has an ammeter or an LCD display showing the current drawn from the supply, an excess of current can indicate a problem If the indication of current is changing, then an open or short circuit in one of the system branches could be causing the current variations Figure 7-25 illustrates this sort of problem As shown in the gure, the current provided by the supply ows to the power inserter, where it splits in both directions Ideally, equal currents as calculated by the design parameters ow in both directions In many cases due to plant additions, this equal current split is destroyed In order to isolate each current s direction, an ammeter can be clipped across one of the fuses Now the fuse can be removed so the ac ammeter can read this current This procedure is shown in Figure 7-26 Now the high current indication on the ammeter identi es the cable section with a short-circuit condition Some manufacturers still offer the selfresetting glass-enclosed circuit breakers, which can be connected through
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Figure 7-25 Current distribution from power supply
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Figure 7-26 Ammeter positioned to measure current To measure, remove fuse, read meter, and replace fuse
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AC ammeter
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7
Fuse
Fuse Branch 2
Branch 1
Cable connector
From power supply
clip leads across the fuse holder in the power inserter By observing the contact positions through the glass envelope, a technician can identify the high current leg of the cable system This method is illustrated in Figure 7-27 Once the portion of the cable system with either the open- or shortcircuit condition has been identi ed, the task is to track down the cause of the problem Usually, the area to next check out is where the subsequent cable split occurs Either a line-splitter or a directional coupler will be at this location and usually the output ports are fused Substituting either an ac ammeter or glass envelope circuit breaker will identify the cable section with either an open circuit (no current) or an overload (high current) condition Since power to the feeder or distribution system is derived from the trunk through the bridger, identifying the defective cable section requires some detective work Trunk ampli er bridger ports are fused and also contain some form of surge suppression Such surge suppression devices range from gas surge suppressors to the metal oxide varister (MOV) types Testing of the fuse is performed by setting the DMM in ac voltage mode and measuring the ac voltage across the fuse terminals When the meter indicates full voltage, the fuse is blown, identifying the highcurrent cable section Conversely, zero voltage means the fuse is okay and passing current
Cable Plant Testing and Maintenance Procedures
Figure 7-27 Self-resetting circuit breaker
Bimetallic stripHeat from a high current breaks circuit contacts Cooling spring tension resets contacts
Insulating tubes
Clip lead
Tracking down power distribution problems can be frustrating and time-consuming In many cases, a cable system plant starts out properly designed and constructed However, plant additions and adjustments that normally progress in a maturing plant can upset the power distribution balance This results in different currents in the two parts of the power inserter device Tracking down these open- and short-circuit conditions in the cable distribution system can be laborious The causes of open and short circuits are given in Table 7-3 Solving open- or low-current conditions and short- or high-current conditions are types of power supply problems that can be aided by a good record of the correct values of the currents On-site, current measurements compared to the correct values will point the way to the cause of the problem 7612 The effects of lightning can cause many problems for the power distribution system Nearby lightning strikes cause large electric and magnetic elds, which induce large voltage spikes into the commercial electric plant These large electric and magnetic elds induce voltages into any conductor suspended in free space Since most of these conductors are grounded, the currents caused by induction are passed to ground Excess currents can cause heating of connection points, resulting in visible charring The lightning damage caused by severe strikes can be inspected and repaired Power surges in the electric plant can also cause power supply
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