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Commercial businesses in most instances have their LAN systems connected to the Internet through either the telephone system (DSL /ADSL modem) or the cable television system (cable modem) Only high-speed LANs can take advantage of high-speed Internet connections Slower LANs, of course, can connect through the ordinary dial-up modem
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83 The Interconnect Process
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Cable television systems that have upgraded to ber optical technology have improved their position as a communications provider This technology is referred to as hybrid ber coaxial (HFC) systems, and it provides television as well as high-speed data and voice services (VOIP) to commercial and residential users Optical- ber technology is the backbone of commercial LAN/ WAN systems; as it connects to nodes where CAT 5, 6, or coaxial cable provide service to user workstations
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Many existing cable communication systems built today need to be interconnected by some means This interconnect process will improve communications between systems, making possible HFC multiservice WANs Cross-connecting of these many systems presents the problem of translation between network operating protocols Most commercial enterprise LAN/ WAN operate under Ethernet, while the telephone-based systems use frame relay and asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) protocols along with the synchronous optical network (SONET) technology Digital information appears in 8-bit (byte) increments, which makes feasible interconnections via packetizing and framing translation between networks Remember that telco digital communications follow the digital signal (DS) standard bit rates and are transmitted as bit streams consisting of frames of bits These bit frames can easily form ATM data cells as well as SONET data cells All of these methods utilize a two-way, forward/reverse, or upstream /downstream service for transporting data To better adapt all the telco protocols for frame relay and ATM, some high-speed interconnect using single-mode optical ber technology was apparent Therefore, SONET was developed and put into service The SONET cells were developed to accommodate the telco digital protocols Digital signals carrying
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voice, data, and video were carried in SONET cells As the saying goes, bit are bits, and as long as the bytes are accounted for in the SONET, all goes well But as time goes by, everything gets old, SONET included Next-generation SONET is on the drawing board and rest assured will be completely compatible with old SONET The interconnection of systems is illustrated in Figure 8-15 8311 When a coaxial-based system is replacing its coaxial trunk with optical ber, planning the location and network position of the optical-toRF and RF-to-optical nodes is important The positioning of such nodes in the system can drastically affect the cost of the upgrade The nodes are often referred to as the upstream /downstream converters Several manufacturers of electronic equipment designed for such nodes often provide little or no-cost services to the prospective buyer Cable system operators must remember that all of the paying subscribers are connected to these nodes The procedure often starts with a system map, where the location
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Figure 8-15 A SONET loop
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Cable system HFC network
ATM OC3 Cable headend 1
SONET fiberoptic ring at OC-12 data rate Cable headend 3 OC3 ATM To cable system HFC network SONET ber-optic loop connects headends to Satellite earth stations, the internet (VOIP), and commercial advertisement inserts Cable headend 2 OC3 ATM To cable system HFC network Commercial insertion
of the distribution nodes can be placed Some systems have skeleton overlay maps, eliminating a lot of detail This type of map lends itself to placing conversion nodes This concept is shown in Figure 8-16 Use of this system map is often referred to as a tree diagram The number of bers in the optical cable is an important factor But remember that the largest cost is for the installation and placement One ber can be used for forward at one optical wavelength and the reverse at a different optical wavelength The other choice would be to use a separate ber for the upstream and another for the downstream 8312 Adding optical ber as a cable system backbone makes some interesting applications possible System performance can be monitored, and some signal switching can be accommodated by the use of one of the available bers Present systems can use an optical ber as the statusmonitoring reporting line A system using such a monitoring and con-