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234 FCC Leakage Speci cations
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The leakage speci cation for cable television systems depends on the frequency band of interest, the leakage intensity in microvolts per meter, and the measuring distance from cable plant as summarized in Table 2-1 The
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Table 2-1 FCC Minimum Leakage Parameters
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Frequency Band (in MHz) Up to and including 54 MHz Over 54 MHz, up to and including 216 MHz Over 216 MHz
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Leakage Level Distance from (in mvolt /meter) Plant (in feet) 15 20 15 100 10 100
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test antenna is speci ed as a dipole However, a whip antenna mounted on a roving vehicle is often used to locate leaks, which are then measured with the dipole The detecting receiver is either a signal-level meter of suf cient sensitivity or a special leakage-detecting receiver Several instrument manufacturers make a combination test transmitter/receiver pair, and cable operators often have several receivers for ongoing leakage monitoring If television channel 6 is used as a test frequency and the leakage measured is at the 20-mV limit, the following formula can then relate this level to a voltage value: E where E 00207F(Vr),
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Example 2-2
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20 mV/m, F is measured in MHz, and Vr is in mV 20 Vr mV 00207(8325 MHz) (Vr mV) 20 ______________ 00207 (8325) 1162 mV
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This voltage value in dBmV 1000 mV 20 log _________ 1162 mV 20 log 8606 387 dBmV
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If the signal-level meter cannot accurately measure signals, a small calibrated preampli er can be used The dipole antenna should be tuned to the test frequency using the following method: 1 wavelength (ft) 984 ________ and dipole F (MHz) 1 wavelength _____________ 2
Coaxial Cable Systems and Networks
Each rod of the dipole will be 1/4 wavelength Each rod length in feet and in inches, 295 12 354 in 35 1/2 in 984 ____ 4F 246 ______ 8325 295 ft
This method is illustrated in Figures 2-22a and 2-22b Now that the measured leak level in dBmV can be related to the speci ed leak in microvolts per meter, a sample calculation of CLI will follow The method of testing is illustrated in the following example (A sample of recorded data at television channel 6 is shown in Table 2-2) Suppose this cable system has 60 miles of total plant and the preceding data was taken from a 20-mile section The CLI can now be calculated At a measured level of 30 dBmV corrected by taking any preampli er gain into account, EmV _____ m 00207(8325)(Vr mV)
Example 2-3
30 dBmV corresponds to 30 dBmV 15 VmV ________ 1000 mV VmV 20 log ________ 1000 mV VmV log ________ 1000 mV
log VmV
( 15)
316 mV 172 316 545 mV/m 134,512) 561
EmV/m CLI
(00207)(8325)(316) 60 10 log ___ 20 134,512
10 log (3 10 (561)
10 log (403,536) The upper limit of acceptable CLI the test
64 Therefore, this system passes
Figure 2-22a Television channel 6 dipole test antenna
351 2"
351 2"
75-ohm coaxial cable
To preamplifier meter
Primary power line Power secondary line 4" Cable television cable
Figure 2-22b Testing a cable for leakage
12" 10" Telephone line
Dipole antenna
Table 2-2 Leakage Signal Level Conversion to Microvolts per Meter for Calculation of CLI
Leak (in dBmV) 39 35 30 20 15 35 40 35 32 30
Leak (in mV/m) 20 305 545 172 306 305 172 306 432 545
Leak 2 400 930 2970 29,584 93,636 930 296 930 1866 2970 134,512
Coaxial Cable Systems and Networks
Summary
The coaxial cable method of television signal distribution consists of a trunk-feeder system where the trunk system acts as a transport for the programming signal to the end of the service area This trunk system consists of a cascade of trunk repeating ampli er sections based on the unity gain building block At selected ampli er locations in the populated portions of the service area, bridging ampli ers were installed to provide signals to the feeder cable known as the subscriber distribution portion of the cable system Taps installed in this distribution cable contain ports for the subscriber drop cable connected to the subscribers homes As the feeder cables were extended, distribution ampli ers were installed to increase the signal level needed to connect more subscribers Several types of amplifying devices are used to allow the cable plant to extend and branch out over the service area As the frequency of the television carriers increased, the cable loss increased, so ampli er gain at the high frequencies had to increase as well Low-frequency signals did not need much ampli er gain, which means slope control of the ampli ers is needed To compensate for this signal-level slope called for a mix of cable equalization networks and ampli er controls Both methods are integrated in the solid-state integrated circuit automatic gain and slope control ampli ers used in today s coaxial networks Two methods of construction are used in coaxial plant serving television signals to subscribers The rst is aerial construction where the coaxial cable is carried on a galvanized steel messenger strand mounted on the utility poles using standard pole-line hardware It is the cable operator s job to obtain the permits from the pole owners usually the local power company, the telephone company, or both To obtain such a permit, the cable operator has to be licensed or have the franchise from the local town, city, or municipality to provide cable television service The pole owners charge the cable operator for any adjustments in their plant needed to make room on the poles for the cable plant Once the permits are obtained the cable operator can install such plant on the utility poles; they will be charged an amount of rent per pole per year The second method is underground, which means the cable is buried in the ground, placed either directly or in duct or pipe, as the municipality may require Either a trench has to be opened or a plow method may be used to place the cable system underground To obtain a permit to install underground plant, all utilities including power, telephone, water, gas, and sewer have to have adequate notice so they can locate and mark
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