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42 Fiber-Optic Trunking and Cable Television Applications
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The rst use of optical ber in cable television applications was to replace the trunk cascade of coaxial cable ampli ers The replacement bene ted cable television systems enormously Nearly all the system noise and distortion contributions caused by the cascade of ampli ers were eliminated In addition, eliminating the trunk meant lower power consumption with less related costs and signal leakage from the trunk system The only drawback was the ber-optic signal was essentially light and was not an RF signal Conversion from the optical signal to an RF signal had to take place at each node or at many nodes Some progressive urban systems using the subsplit reverse or mid/high-split upstream transmission replaced the downstream (forward) trunk with optical ber and did away with their reverse systems As it turned out, few systems made this change, and those that did pulled the forward ampli er modules and used the old trunk system for only the upstream application The dif culty systems had facing this problem depended in large part on the availability of equipment types their manufacturer had available to rework the reverseonly system Systems considering optical ber additions should study the methods of ber-optic network topology as well as their cable system network topology Fiber-optic technology has many similarities to coaxial cable systems Both cables experience loss, which is a function of frequency, but ber-optic cables have a difference in loss versus frequency due to the material characteristics of glass Still, in systems operating at wavelengths of 1310 nm or 1550 nm, the loss is given in dB per kilometer, and the calculation of signal levels is done in much the same way as coaxial
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cable For optical systems, the signal levels are in optical dB/ km The usual unit is in dBm of the optical power level Handheld optical power meters are used to measure system levels at cable ends
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421 Fiber-Optic Cable Overlay
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The method of a ber-optic cable overlay of the coaxial trunk system, shown in Figure 4-17, is the simplest approach in implementing beroptic techniques The gure displays the optical ber following the trunk route with often two or more bers serving an area Fiber-optic cable is manufactured with many choices of single bers placed in buffer tubes For aerial applications, loose-tube cable is often the choice There may be two to eight bers per buffer tube and as many as eight buffer tubes per cable This can result with as many as 64 bers in a cable For the ber trunk method, also known as ber backbone, 24 total bers are usually adequate, with plenty of spares (dark bers) for the future expansion of either up- or downstream requirements For cable systems carrying 50 or more channels, some terminal equipment will split the signal band into groups of channels and will optically transmit, for example, 16 television channels per ber If the whole channel lineup is transmitted on one laser transmitter on one ber, the laser
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Optical node A P/S Optical node D Branch D P/S Old trunk route Headend P/S Old trunk route Optical node B
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Branch A
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Optical node C P/S Branch C
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No more than five amplifiers in a cascade
Figure 4-17 Example of a ber backbone
Fiber-Optic Technology in Cable Systems
power is spread over the whole band When a laser transmitter transmits 16, 6-MHz channels over one ber, the power is spread over about a 100MHz band (6 16 = 96) This will result in a higher receive power per channel The network branches, as shown in Figure 4-17, indicate the optical paths that may actually consist of one or more bers, each carrying a group of television channels These groups of channels will be recombined at the optical receivers It should be apparent that the addition of node-connecting bers will result in redundant optical paths at each node Such alternate optical signal routing is shown in Figure 4-18 Signal source switching at each optical node can be controlled by a computer at the hub/headend or by a simple loss-of-signal switch 4211 The development of system node locations is important in restructuring the network for system upgrades and increasing signal reliability Alternate ber-optic routing can result in each node s capability to maintain a reliable, nearly fail-safe system It is imperative that each node be powered by a standby or uninterruptible power system (UPS) Failure of individual coaxial cable distribution ampli ers will cause only a small number of subscribers to lose service When the calls come in reporting an outage at a node, the area and the device location often can be determined quickly Thus, the outage can be corrected in short order System distribution nodes are another name for a sub-hub, where signals from the main source or headend are supplied by an optical- ber system
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