print barcode printer c# Figure 4-27 OTDR testing of ber-optic cable in Software

Generate PDF-417 2d barcode in Software Figure 4-27 OTDR testing of ber-optic cable

Figure 4-27 OTDR testing of ber-optic cable
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Optical TDR
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1 km of single fiber 05 dB/km
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Reel of fiber-optic cable
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02 dB 14 dB Attenuation (dB) Input connector, end of fiber Fresnel reflection at opposite end of fiber
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End of fiber (length on reel)
Fiber-Optic Technology in Cable Systems
information could prove useful if a problem occurs after installation The documentation can simply be a list of each ber and its attenuation where the ber is identi ed by the color of its outer coating and the color of the buffer tube containing it Each reel also has a serial number that should be recorded Some cable operators develop a printed form made into pads so they can be numbered, torn off, and led An example of such a form is shown in Figure 4-28 A faster and more elegant method is to have an OTDR that has a digital memory and readout feature Such instruments can store measured data in digital memory for later examination Fiber color and buffer tube color identi cation information can be entered via a keyboard that comes with the instrument This process allows the operator to enter the reel number and measured attenuation, along with other information such as the instrument, operator, time, and date Data storage can be done on a convenient oppy disc
Figure 4-28 Example of a manual record of test data for ber-optic cable
Company Name, Address, and Telephone Number Test date: Cable reel no: Type of installation: Order no: Inst model no: Name of technician: Date of delivery: Calib date:
Test wavelength:
nm Admittance Test Data
Buffer tube color
Fiber color
Optical att (dB)
Buffer tube color
Fiber color
Optical att (dB)
433 Fiber-Optic Cable Installation
4
Installing ber-optic cable requires some special procedures that are different than the procedures used for installing solid aluminum-sheath coaxial cable Most people remember quite well that coaxial cable should not be crushed or kinked during handling and that the installation process can cause the cable to be stressed more than the loading and unloading process Therefore, the differences in handling will be addressed for both the aerial and underground installation process 4331 In general, ber-optic cable is manufactured in longer lengths than coaxial cable for two reasons First, it is not necessary to place amplifying or repeating devices along the cable run, and second, it is most important to minimize the number of splices Splicing ber-optic cable can be an extremely long and laborious process because each ber has to be individually fusion spliced and placed in a splice tray The splice trays are then placed in cylindrical PVC weather- and moistureproof enclosures The long lengths of ber-optic cable have to be installed in sections Therefore, pulling tension on the cable has to be closely monitored in order to avoid exceeding the recommended value by the manufacturers A process called gure-eighting is often used, which helps relieve pulling tension This process is shown in Figure 4-29 Contractors who are more experienced and specialize in optical- ber cable installation have equipment that controls the tension on the cable
Figure 4-29 Figure-eight tension relief method
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Figure-eight pattern of optical cable
Fiber-Optic Technology in Cable Systems
Such equipment is a servo-controlled winch or capstan drive where the cable tension controls the action Pulling grips used for optical cable are the same type as used for coaxial cable and distribute the tensile pull load over the outer cable jacket Because splicing should be avoided, service loops (excess cable) are placed along the cable run The initial loop is placed at the beginning of the run and often appears approximately every fth or sixth pole span This excess cable can be used when the aerial pole plant is rerouted or when new roads or road-widening work is needed With this advance planning, cutting and splicing in a new piece is avoided The excess length has to be designed into the system and initially taken into account when calculating cable attenuation and optical input /output levels These service loops use a turning frame that resembles a snowshoe or tennis racquet Essentially, a gure-eight pattern of cable is stored in the loop and is raised and mounted on the steel aerial strand An example of a service loop is shown in Figure 4-30 In general, ber-optic cable should not be tightly lashed with coaxial cable, so precautions should be taken when pulling the lasher It is vital to nd a contractor who is experienced in proper ber-optic cable installation
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