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LANs were developed as a necessity for supplying data connections required by the commercial business world Because no standards were speci ed, technicians and engineers made rudimentary networks to solve particular problems Network topologies were nally developed and several types of LANs evolved These network topologies exist in a variety of forms, such as a star network, where all end-user stations pass through a main switching center Other topologies are the tree-branch network, the ring-type network, and the bus network These topologies are shown in Figure 5-8 Various techniques are also employed to control the network A central switcher controls the star-type network For the tree network, each station has its address and control from branch to branch through the main station A bus network is controlled by a collision-detection system used to prevent all stations from trying to communicate at once The ring topology usually uses a token-passing scheme in which the station that needs to transmit must possess the token
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Station 1 Station 2 Station 1 Main station Station 2 Station 5 Star network all communications go through the switch network Station 4 Station 5 Station 3
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Switch network
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Tree network stations on same branch communicate; those on different branches go through the main station
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Station 1 Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 8 Station 2
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Station 7 Station 4 Station 5 Station 6 Bus network all stations communicate
Station 3
Station 6 Station 5
Station 4
Ring-network stations act as repeaters for each other
Figure 5-8 Network topologies
Each network topology has its advantages and disadvantages The speci c application often determines the one that will be best suited A brief study of some of the more popular LAN systems follows in the next sections 5211 Ethernet is one of the oldest LAN types still in existence today and it seems as if it keeps reinventing itself Basically, Ethernet is a bus topology and is one of a family of IEEE 802 architectures Ethernet uses coaxial cable that supports data rates of 10 Mbps This cable has a 50-ohm characteristic impedance Ethernet rates over coaxial cable have been pushed to 100 Mbps, while for shorter distances over 10 Mbps copper twisted-pair can be used
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Recently, as the need for faster transfers of large data les has become critical, Ethernet systems converted to optical ber Thus, for distances of 200 m, multimode ber systems are adequate, while single-mode operation distances of approximately 5 km are attainable at speeds up to 1 Gbps The conversion to ber was quite simple, following the same routes and often not requiring any electronics between stations Ethernet was originally developed through a concerted effort by Xerox, Intel, and DEC Workstations operating on the bus cable had either an Ethernet modem or a network interface card (NIC) installed into the workstation computer Ethernet operates on the bus using carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA /CD) A station wishing to transmit has in the modem or NIC a circuit that looks for a data carrier on the bus Seeing none, it transmits and if at that same moment another station transmits, the collision circuit in each of the transmitting station s NIC will call for a time-out The length of the time-out period varies between users Once a connection is made between stations and a carrier is present, it prevents other stations from trying to transmit For many businesses, Ethernet LANs provide the needed data transfers between computer workstations Many Ethernet cable systems used a piercing pressure tap similar to early cable television systems that was used to connect the data transceivers to the bus cable line An example of an Ethernet system is shown in Figure 5-9 The Ethernet LAN is essentially a transmission line system and should be properly terminated Branching has to be made with coupling networks
Figure 5-9 Ethernet bus system
Couplers
workstations
Cable is marked with a stripe to indicate where a tap should be placed
50-ohm termination
5
all properly impedance-matched Repeater ampli ers can be placed in the line when needed to increase the carrier signal level The data rate, or bit rate, is related to the data packet size by the transmission path length For short distances of approximately 100 meters, 10 Mbps can be supported by unshielded twisted dual-pair cable, which is actually telephone cable This is very attractive for small intrabuilding LANs using low cost, easily installed telephone wire In many cases the business occupants found excess telco type wire already installed and in place Thus, a low-cost 10 Base-T LAN could be quickly put together Table 5-2 lists the generic progression of the Ethernet type LANs Ethernet software requires that data be sent in packets with the appropriate header containing the addresses of the sender and receiver The formation of a data packet is shown in Figure 5-10 The preamble section is often 8 bytes of zeros and ones, providing enough transitions to establish bit synchronization (clock sync) Following the preamble is the destination address of 6 bytes This address can be a speci c station address or a broadcast for every station to receive or a selected group of stations to
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