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Carrier frequency 1 8140 KHz Voice Ch 1 Voice conditioning 0 4 KHz band-pass filter Mixer Carrier frequency 12 8184 KHz Voice Ch 12 Voice conditioning 0 4 KHzband-pass filter Mixer
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Upper sideband (SUM) selected
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8140 8144 KHz band-pass filter Ch 2
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Ch 3 8140 8144 KHz band-pass filter
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Output of summing circuit 8140 8188 KHz (48-KHz bandwidth containing 12 one-way voice channels)
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Figure 5-19 Coaxial cable with 12 voice channels
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Shortly after World War II, the telephone industry converted to digital technology based on cost and system ef ciency factors This was a timely and appropriate decision to make Because switching theory is actually a binary or digital subject, it is a normal extension of the technology to apply to the voice signal as well Thus, the T-1 system was introduced Because some telephone engineers use the word carrier to describe the message transportation method, the T-1 digital system is called the T-1 carrier, which is presently classi ed as digital system-1 (DS-1) Expansion of DS-1 speeds by time-division multiplexing (TDM) methods increased bit rates to DS-2 and DS-3 levels 5321 The T-1 system digitizes 24 analog telephone channels into a data stream of bits Because each telephone analog channel of 4 KHz is to be sampled, according to Nyquist s sampling theorem, each of the channels has to be sampled at 8000 samples per second Once each of the 24 channels has been sampled, a framing bit is needed to indicate the end of the frame
5
Each sample of the analog data needs 8 bits to accurately describe the signal amplitude The net result is that 24 channels (one way) of the telephone service give a bit rate of 1544 Mbps This is shown in Figure 5-20 This method is known as pulse code modulation (PCM) Also, because each telephone channel has a time slot in the bit stream, it is also referred to as TDM The T-1 system can be carried on a four-wire system for full-duplex transmission It might seem impossible that copper twisted pair can carry a pulsed signal operating at 1544 Mbps This line rate is actually transmitted long distances as a carrier phase amplitude modulated signal where several bits are contained by one phase and amplitude value As long as the physical transmission wire or cable system can carry the carrier and preserve the modulation intact, the effective bit rate can be realized Wider-band cables, such as coaxial cable and ber-optic cable, with higher bit rates can be transmitted These higher bit rates are achieved by multiplexing the basic T-1 carrier Channel bank equipment either at the LEX or a private branch exchange (PBX) at various commercial locations can output higher order
Figure 5-20 Formation of T-1 systems (DS-1)
Ch 1
Channel 1 bank
Ch 2
Channel 2 bank
1544 Mbps
TDM multiplexer Ch 24
Channel 24 bank
Each channel is sampled at 8000 frames/second providing 8 bits/sample which is 64,000 bits/channel/second For 24 channels, plus 1 bit (framing bit): 64,000 bits/channel/second 24 channels/frame 1,536,000 bits/second, plus 8000 frame bits 1,544,000 bits/second 1544 Mbps
Digital Technology and Cable System Applications
For basic T-1 system: 8 bits DS-1 channel 24 channels frame 192 bits frame 1 frame bit frame
193 bits frame
Example 5-1
At a sampling rate of 8000 frames/second: 193 bits frame For basic T-1 C: DS-1C 8 bits channel 8000 frame second 48 channels frame 1544 Mbps
384 bits frame
10 sync bits frame
394 bits frame
At a sampling rate of 8000 frames/second: 394 bits frame 8000 frame second 3152 Mbps
T carriers Present-day channel banks using large-scale integrated circuit (LSI) technology work in full duplex where the analog-transmitted speech signal is digitized, compressed, and transmitted The return digital signal is also decoded, decompressed, and converted to analog, providing full-duplex service Channel banks that operate at higher speeds can stack basic T-1 carriers into higher order line speeds For example, two T-1 frames consisting of a total of 48 channels will produce a line speed of 3152 Mbps This method is illustrated in Example 5-1 For short transmission distances of under 1 mi, data can be sent over copper wires using a 3 V and 3 V bipolar format called alternate mark inversion (AMI) This format provides improved signal synchronization due to increase of transitions in the signal The digital signal hierarchy developed from the basic T-1 system is shown in Table 5-3 5322 The telephone industry in both the United States and in Europe has expanded rapidly into digital technology Basically, the T-1 digital carrier consisted of 24 analog telephone channels Each channel is sampled at 8000 samples per second into 8 bits per sample, giving the basic DSO data rate of 64 Kbps This DSO rate can support computer digital data Therefore, a 24-channel T-1 system can be subdivided into, for instance, 18 voice channels (18 DSOs) plus 5, 56-Kbps channels (5 DSOs) and 3, 96-Kbps data channels can be multiplexed to 1 DSO channel, therefore completing the 24 DSO channels Using this method, commercial digital data services can be mixed into T-1 frames and transmitted to of ces in various cities Banks and nancial institutions that require high-speed data communications use the telephone network facilities to carry their business data traf c intermingled with digital telephone traf c
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