print barcode printer c# The Predefined Streams in Visual C#.NET

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The Predefined Streams
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Three predefined streams, which are exposed by the properties called ConsoleIn, ConsoleOut, and ConsoleError, are available to all programs that use the System namespace ConsoleOut refers to the standard output stream By default, this is the
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Part I:
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console When you call ConsoleWriteLine( ), for example, it automatically sends information to ConsoleOut ConsoleIn refers to standard input, which is, by default, the keyboard ConsoleError refers to the standard error stream, which is also the console by default However, these streams can be redirected to any compatible I/O device The standard streams are character streams Thus, these streams read and write characters
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The Stream Classes
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The NET Framework defines both byte and character stream classes However, the character stream classes are really just wrappers that convert an underlying byte stream to a character stream, handling any conversion automatically Thus, the character streams, although logically separate, are built upon byte streams The core stream classes are defined within the SystemIO namespace To use these classes, you will usually include the following statement near the top of your program:
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using SystemIO;
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The reason that you don t have to specify SystemIO for console input and output is that the Console class is defined in the System namespace
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The Stream Class
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The core stream class is SystemIOStream Stream represents a byte stream and is a base class for all other stream classes It is also abstract, which means that you cannot instantiate a Stream object Stream defines a set of standard stream operations Table 14-1 shows several commonly used methods defined by Stream Several of the methods shown in Table 14-1 will throw an IOException if an I/O error occurs If an invalid operation is attempted, such as attempting to write to a stream that is read-only, a NotSupportedException is thrown Other exceptions are possible, depending on the specific method
Method void Close( ) void Flush( ) int ReadByte( ) int Read(byte[ ] buffer, int offset, int count) long Seek(long offset, SeekOrigin origin) void WriteByte(byte value) int Write(byte[ ] buffer, int offset, int count) Description Closes the stream Writes the contents of the stream to the physical device Returns an integer representation of the next available byte of input Returns 1 when the end of the file is encountered Attempts to read up to count bytes into buffer starting at buffer[offset], returning the number of bytes successfully read Sets the current position in the stream to the specified offset from the specified origin It returns the new position Writes a single byte to an output stream Writes a subrange of count bytes from the array buffer, beginning at buffer[offset], returning the number of bytes written
TABLE 14-1
Some of the Methods De ned by Stream
14:
Using I/O
Notice that Stream defines methods that read and write data However, not all streams will support both of these operations, because it is possible to open read-only or write-only streams Also, not all streams will support position requests via Seek( ) To determine the capabilities of a stream, you will use one or more of Stream s properties They are shown in Table 14-2 Also shown are the Length and Position properties, which contain the length of the stream and its current position
PART I
The Byte Stream Classes
Several concrete byte streams are derived from Stream Those defined in the SystemIO namespace are shown here:
Stream Class BufferedStream FileStream MemoryStream UnmanagedMemoryStream Description Wraps a byte stream and adds buffering Buffering provides a performance enhancement in many cases A byte stream designed for file I/O A byte stream that uses memory for storage A byte stream that uses unmanaged memory for storage
Several other concrete stream classes are also supported by the NET Framework, which provide support for compressed files, sockets, and pipes, among others It is also possible for you to derive your own stream classes However, for the vast majority of applications, the built-in streams will be sufficient
Property bool CanRead bool CanSeek bool CanTimeout bool CanWrite long Length long Position int ReadTimeout int WriteTimeout
Description This property is true if the stream can be read This property is read-only This property is true if the stream supports position requests This property is read-only This property is true if the stream can time out This property is read-only This property is true if the stream can be written This property is read-only This property contains the length of the stream This property is read-only This property represents the current position of the stream This property is read/write This property represents the length of time before a time-out will occur for read operations This property is read/write This property represents the length of time before a time-out will occur for write operations This property is read/write
TABLE 14-2
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