barcode generator c# source code The Numeric Format Specifiers in C#.NET

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The Numeric Format Specifiers
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There are several format specifiers defined for numeric data They are shown in Table 22-4 Each format specifier can include an optional precision specifier For example, to specify that a value be represented as a fixed-point value with two decimal places, use F2 As explained, the precise effect of certain format specifiers depends upon the cultural settings For example, the currency specifier, C, automatically displays a value in the monetary format of the selected culture For most users, the default cultural information matches their locale and language Thus, the same format specifier can be used without concern about the cultural context in which the program is executed
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Strings and Formatting
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Specifier C c D d E e F f G g N n P p R or r
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Format Currency (that is, a monetary value) Same as C Whole number numeric data (Use with integers only) Same as D Scientific notation (uses uppercase E) Scientific notation (uses lowercase e) Fixed-point notation Same as F Use either E or F format, whichever is shorter Use either e or f format, whichever is shorter Fixed-point notation, with comma separators Same as N Percentage Same as P Numeric value that can be parsed, using Parse( ), back into its equivalent internal form (This is called the round-trip format) Hexadecimal (uses uppercase letters A through F) Hexadecimal (uses lowercase letters a through f)
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Meaning of Precision Specifier Specifies the number of decimal places Minimum number of digits Leading zeros will be used to pad the result, if necessary Specifies the number of decimal places The default is six Specifies the number of decimal places The default is six Specifies the number of decimal places See E and F See e and f Specifies the number of decimal places Specifies the number of decimal places Not used
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Minimum number of digits Leading zeros will be used to pad the result, if necessary Minimum number of digits Leading zeros will be used to pad the result if necessary
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TABLE 22-4
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The Numeric Format Speci ers
Here is a program that demonstrates several of the numeric format specifiers:
// Demonstrate various format specifiers using System; class FormatDemo { static void Main() { double v = 1768865849; double v2 = 015; int x = 21; ConsoleWriteLine("{0:F2}", v); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:N5}", v);
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ConsoleWriteLine("{0:e}", v); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:r}", v); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:p}", v2); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:X}", x); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:D12}", x); ConsoleWriteLine("{0:C}", 18999); } }
The output is shown here:
1768866 17,68865849 1768866e+004 1768865849 1500 % 15 000000000021 $18999
Notice the effect of the precision specifier in several of the formats
Understanding Argument Numbers
It is important to understand that the argument associated with a format item is determined by the argument number, not the argument s position in the argument list This means the same argument can be output more than once within the same call to WriteLine( ) It also means that arguments can be displayed in a sequence different than they are specified in the argument list For example, consider the following program:
using System; class FormatDemo2 { static void Main() { // Format the same argument three different ways: ConsoleWriteLine("{0:F2} {0:F3} {0:e}", 1012345); // Display arguments in non-sequential order ConsoleWriteLine("{2:d} {0:d} {1:d}", 1, 2, 3); } }
The output is shown here:
1012 3 1 2 10123 1012345e+001
22:
Strings and Formatting
In the first WriteLine( ) statement, the same argument, 1012345, is formatted three different ways This is possible because each format specifier refers to the first (and only) argument In the second WriteLine( ) statement, the three arguments are displayed in nonsequential order Remember, there is no rule that format specifiers must use the arguments in sequence Any format specifier can refer to any argument
Using StringFormat( ) and ToString( ) to Format Data
Although embedding format commands into WriteLine( ) is a convenient way to format output, sometimes you will want to create a string that contains the formatted data, but not immediately display that string Doing so lets you format data in advance, allowing you to output it later, to the device of your choosing This is especially useful in a GUI environment, such as Windows, in which console-based I/O is rarely used, or for preparing output for a web page In general, there are two ways to obtain the formatted string representation of a value One way is to use StringFormat( ) The other is to pass a format specifier to the ToString( ) method of the built-in numeric types Each approach is examined here
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