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Collections, Enumerators, and Iterators
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// Add elements to the list invAdd(new Inventory("Pliers", 595, 3)); invAdd(new Inventory("Wrenches", 829, 2)); invAdd(new Inventory("Hammers", 350, 4)); invAdd(new Inventory("Drills", 1988, 8)); ConsoleWriteLine("Inventory list:"); foreach(Inventory i in inv) { ConsoleWriteLine(" " + i); } } }
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In this version, notice the only real difference is the passing of the type Inventory as a type argument to List<T> Other than that, the two programs are nearly identical The fact that the use of a generic collection requires virtually no additional effort and adds type safety argues strongly for its use when storing a specific type of object within a collection In general, there is one other thing to notice about the preceding programs: Both are quite short When you consider that each sets up a dynamic array that can store, retrieve, and process inventory information in less than 40 lines of code, the power of collections begins to become apparent As most readers will know, if all of this functionality had to be coded by hand, the program would have been several times longer Collections offer readyto-use solutions to a wide variety of programming problems You should use them whenever the situation warrants There is one limitation to the preceding programs that may not be immediately apparent: The collection can t be sorted The reason for this is that neither ArrayList nor List<T> has a way to compare two Inventory objects There are two ways to remedy this situation First, Inventory can implement the IComparable interface This interface defines how two objects of a class are compared Second, an IComparer object can be specified when comparisons are required The following sections illustrate both approaches
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Implementing IComparable
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If you want to sort a collection that contains user-defined objects (or if you want to store those objects in a collection such as SortedList, which maintains its elements in sorted order), then the collection must know how to compare those objects One way to do this is for the object being stored to implement the IComparable interface The IComparable interface comes in two forms: generic and non-generic Although the way each is used is similar, there are some small differences Each is examined here
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If you want to sort objects that are stored in a non-generic collection, then you will implement the non-generic version of IComparable This version defines only one method, CompareTo( ), which determines how comparisons are performed The general form of CompareTo( ) is shown here: int CompareTo(object obj) CompareTo( ) compares the invoking object to obj To sort in ascending order, your implementation must return zero if the objects are equal, a positive value if the invoking
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object is greater than obj, and a negative value if the invoking object is less than obj You can sort in descending order by reversing the outcome of the comparison The method can throw an ArgumentException if the type of obj is not compatible for comparison with the invoking object Here is an example that shows how to implement IComparable It adds IComparable to the Inventory class developed in the preceding section It implements CompareTo( ) so that it compares the name field, thus enabling the inventory to be sorted by name By implementing IComparable, it allows a collection of Inventory objects to be sorted, as the program illustrates
// Implement IComparable using System; using SystemCollections; // Implement the non-generic IComparable interface class Inventory : IComparable { string name; double cost; int onhand; public Inventory(string n, double c, int h) { name = n; cost = c; onhand = h; } public override string ToString() { return StringFormat("{0,-10}Cost: {1,6:C} name, cost, onhand); }
On hand: {2}",
// Implement the IComparable interface public int CompareTo(object obj) { Inventory b; b = (Inventory) obj; return stringCompare(name, bname, StringComparisonOrdinal); } } class IComparableDemo { static void Main() { ArrayList inv = new ArrayList(); // Add elements to the list invAdd(new Inventory("Pliers", 595, 3)); invAdd(new Inventory("Wrenches", 829, 2)); invAdd(new Inventory("Hammers", 350, 4)); invAdd(new Inventory("Drills", 1988, 8)); ConsoleWriteLine("Inventory list before sorting:"); foreach(Inventory i in inv) {
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