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Jagged Arrays
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In the preceding examples, when you created a two-dimensional array, you were creating what is called a rectangular array Thinking of two-dimensional arrays as tables, a rectangular array is a two-dimensional array in which the length of each row is the same for the entire array However, C# also allows you to create a special type of two-dimensional array called a jagged array A jagged array is an array of arrays in which the length of each array can differ Thus, a jagged array can be used to create a table in which the lengths of the rows are not the same
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Arrays and Strings
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Jagged arrays are declared by using sets of square brackets to indicate each dimension For example, to declare a two-dimensional jagged array, you will use this general form: type[ ] [ ] array-name = new type[size][ ]; Here, size indicates the number of rows in the array The rows, themselves, have not been allocated Instead, the rows are allocated individually This allows for the length of each row to vary For example, the following code allocates memory for the first dimension of jagged when it is declared It then allocates the second dimensions manually
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int[][] jagged = new int[3][]; jagged[0] = new int[4]; jagged[1] = new int[3]; jagged[2] = new int[5];
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After this sequence executes, jagged looks like this:
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It is easy to see how jagged arrays got their name! Once a jagged array has been created, an element is accessed by specifying each index within its own set of brackets For example, to assign the value 10 to element 2, 1 of jagged, you would use this statement:
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jagged[2][1] = 10;
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Note that this differs from the syntax that is used to access an element of a rectangular array The following program demonstrates the creation of a jagged two-dimensional array:
// Demonstrate jagged arrays using System; class Jagged { static void Main() { int[][] jagged = new int[3][]; jagged[0] = new int[4]; jagged[1] = new int[3]; jagged[2] = new int[5]; int i; // Store values in first array for(i=0; i < 4; i++) jagged[0][i] = i; // Store values in second array for(i=0; i < 3; i++) jagged[1][i] = i;
Part I:
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// Store values in third array for(i=0; i < 5; i++) jagged[2][i] = i; // Display values in first array for(i=0; i < 4; i++) ConsoleWrite(jagged[0][i] + " "); ConsoleWriteLine(); // Display values in second array for(i=0; i < 3; i++) ConsoleWrite(jagged[1][i] + " "); ConsoleWriteLine(); // Display values in third array for(i=0; i < 5; i++) ConsoleWrite(jagged[2][i] + " "); ConsoleWriteLine(); } }
The output is shown here:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4
Jagged arrays are not used by all applications, but they can be effective in some situations For example, if you need a very large two-dimensional array that is sparsely populated (that is, one in which not all of the elements will be used), then a jagged array might be a perfect solution One last point: Because jagged arrays are arrays of arrays, there is no restriction that requires that the arrays be one-dimensional For example, the following creates an array of two-dimensional arrays:
int[][,] jagged = new int[3][,];
The next statement assigns jagged[0] a reference to a 4 2 array:
jagged[0] = new int[4, 2];
The following statement assigns a value to jagged[0][1,0]:
jagged[0][1,0] = i;
Assigning Array References
As with other objects, when you assign one array reference variable to another, you are simply making both variables refer to the same array You are neither causing a copy of the
7:
Arrays and Strings
array to be created, nor are you causing the contents of one array to be copied to the other For example, consider this program:
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