qr code generator c# example Interfaces, Structures, and Enumerations in C#.NET

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Interfaces, Structures, and Enumerations
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static void Main() { MyStruct a; MyStruct b;
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PART I PART I PART I
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ax = 10; bx = 20; ConsoleWriteLine("ax {0}, bx {1}", ax, bx); a = b; bx = 30; ConsoleWriteLine("ax {0}, bx {1}", ax, bx); } }
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The output is shown here:
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ax 10, bx 20 ax 20, bx 30
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As the output shows, after the assignment
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a = b;
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the structure variables a and b are still separate and distinct That is, a does not refer to or relate to b in any way other than containing a copy of b s value This would not be the case if a and b were class references For example, here is the class version of the preceding program:
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// Use a class using System; // Now a class class MyClass { public int x; } // Now show a class object assignment class ClassAssignment { static void Main() { MyClass a = new MyClass(); MyClass b = new MyClass(); ax = 10; bx = 20; ConsoleWriteLine("ax {0}, bx {1}", ax, bx); a = b; bx = 30;
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Part I:
The C# Language
ConsoleWriteLine("ax {0}, bx {1}", ax, bx); } }
The output from this version is shown here:
ax 10, bx 20 ax 30, bx 30
As you can see, after the assignment of b to a, both variables refer to the same object the one originally referred to by b
Why Structures
At this point, you might be wondering why C# includes the struct since it seems to be a less-capable version of a class The answer lies in efficiency and performance Because structures are value types, they are operated on directly rather than through a reference Thus, a struct does not require a separate reference variable This means that less memory is used in some cases Furthermore, because a struct is accessed directly, it does not suffer from the performance loss that is inherent in accessing a class object Because classes are reference types, all access to class objects is through a reference This indirection adds overhead to every access Structures do not incur this overhead In general, if you need to simply store a group of related data, but don t need inheritance and don t need to operate on that data through a reference, then a struct can be a more efficient choice Here is another example that shows how a structure might be used in practice It simulates an e-commerce transaction record Each transaction includes a packet header that contains the packet number and the length of the packet This is followed by the account number and the amount of the transaction Because the packet header is a self-contained unit of information, it is organized as a structure This structure can then be used to create a transaction record, or any other type of information packet
// Structures are good when grouping small amounts of data using System; // Define a packet structure struct PacketHeader { public uint PackNum; // packet number public ushort PackLen; // length of packet } // Use PacketHeader to create an e-commerce transaction record class Transaction { static uint transacNum = 0; PacketHeader ph; // incorporate PacketHeader into Transaction string accountNum; double amount;
12:
Interfaces, Structures, and Enumerations
public Transaction(string acc, double val) { // create packet header phPackNum = transacNum++; phPackLen = 512; // arbitrary length accountNum = acc; amount = val; } // Simulate a transaction public void sendTransaction() { ConsoleWriteLine("Packet #: " + phPackNum + ", Length: " + phPackLen + ",\n Account #: " + accountNum + ", Amount: {0:C}\n", amount); } } // Demonstrate Packet class PacketDemo { static void Main() { Transaction t = new Transaction("31243", -10012); Transaction t2 = new Transaction("AB4655", 34525); Transaction t3 = new Transaction("8475-09", 980000); tsendTransaction(); t2sendTransaction(); t3sendTransaction(); } }
PART I PART I PART I
The output from the program is shown here:
Packet #: 0, Length: 512, Account #: 31243, Amount: ($10012) Packet #: 1, Length: 512, Account #: AB4655, Amount: $34525 Packet #: 2, Length: 512, Account #: 8475-09, Amount: $9,80000
PacketHeader is a good choice for a struct because it contains only a small amount of data and does not use inheritance or even contain methods As a structure, PacketHeader does not incur the additional overhead of a reference, as a class would Thus, any type of transaction record can use PacketHeader without affecting its efficiency As a point of interest, C++ also has structures and uses the struct keyword However, C# and C++ structures are not the same In C++, struct defines a class type Thus, in C++, struct and class are nearly equivalent (The difference has to do with the default access of their members, which is private for class and public for struct) In C#, a struct defines a value type, and a class defines a reference type
Part I:
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