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The Lambda Operator
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All lambda expressions use the new lambda operator, which is => This operator divides a lambda expression into two parts On the left the input parameter (or parameters) is specified On the right is the lambda body The => operator is sometimes verbalized as goes to or becomes
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Part I:
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C# supports two types of lambda expressions, and it is the lambda body that determines what type is being created If the lambda body consists of a single expression, then an expression lambda is being created In this case, the body is free-standing it is not enclosed between braces If the lambda body consists of a block of statements enclosed by braces, then a statement lambda is being created A statement lambda can contain multiple statements and include such things as loops, method calls, and if statements The following sections describe both kinds of lambdas
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Expression Lambdas
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In an expression lambda, the expression on the right side of the => acts on the parameter (or parameters) specified by the left side The result of the expression becomes the result of the lambda operator and is returned Here is the general form of an expression lambda that takes only one parameter: param => expr When more than one parameter is required, then the following form is used: (param-list) => expr Therefore, when two or more parameters are needed, they must be enclosed by parentheses If no parameters are needed, then empty parentheses must be used Here is a simple expression lambda: count => count + 2 Here count is the parameter that is acted on by the expression count + 2 Thus, the result is the value of count increased by two Here is another example: n => n % 2 == 0 In this case, this expression returns true if n is even and false if it is odd To use a lambda expression involves two steps First, declare a delegate type that is compatible with the lambda expression Second, declare an instance of the delegate, assigning to it the lambda expression Once this has been done, the lambda expression can be executed by calling the delegate instance The result of the lambda expression becomes the return value The following program shows how to put the two expression lambdas just shown into action It declares two delegate types The first, called Incr, takes an int argument and returns an int result The second, called IsEven, takes an int argument and returns a bool result It then assigns the lambda expressions to instances of those delegates Finally, it executes the lambda expressions through the delegate instances
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// Use two simple lambda expressions using System; // Declare a delegate that takes an int argument // and returns an int result delegate int Incr(int v); // Declare a delegate that takes an int argument // and returns a bool result
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Delegates, Events, and Lambda Expressions
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delegate bool IsEven(int v); class SimpleLambdaDemo {
PART I PART I PART I
static void Main() { // Create an Incr delegate instance that refers to // a lambda expression that increases its parameter by 2 Incr incr = count => count + 2; // Now, use the incr lambda expression ConsoleWriteLine("Use incr lambda expression: "); int x = -10; while(x <= 0) { ConsoleWrite(x + " "); x = incr(x); // increase x by 2 } ConsoleWriteLine("\n"); // Create an IsEven delegate instance that refers to // a lambda expression that returns true if its parameter // is even and false otherwise IsEven isEven = n => n % 2 == 0; // Now, use the isEven lambda expression ConsoleWriteLine("Use isEven lambda expression: "); for(int i=1; i <= 10; i++) if(isEven(i)) ConsoleWriteLine(i + " is even"); } }
The output is shown here:
Use incr lambda expression: -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 Use isEven lambda expression: 2 is even 4 is even 6 is even 8 is even 10 is even
In the program, pay special attention to these declarations:
Incr incr = count => count + 2; IsEven isEven = n => n % 2 == 0;
The first assigns to incr a lambda expression that returns the result of increasing the value passed to count by 2 This expression can be assigned to an Incr delegate because it is compatible with Incr s declaration The argument used in the call to incr is passed to count The result is returned The second declaration assigns to isEven an expression that returns
Part I:
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