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C# contains two general categories of built-in data types: value types and reference types The difference between the two types is what a variable contains For a value type, a variable holds an actual value, such 31416 or 212 For a reference type, a variable holds a reference to the value The most commonly used reference type is the class, and a discussion of classes and reference types is deferred until later in this book The value types are described here At the core of C# are the 13 value types shown in Table 3-1 Collectively, these are referred to as the simple types They are called simple types because they consist of a single value (In other words, they are not a composite of two or more values) They form the foundation of C# s type system, providing the basic, low-level data elements upon which a program operates The simple types are also sometimes referred to as primitive types
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Part I:
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Type bool byte char decimal double float int long sbyte short uint ulong ushort
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TABLE 3-1 The C# Value Types
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Meaning Represents true/false values 8-bit unsigned integer Character Numeric type for financial calculations Double-precision floating point Single-precision floating point Integer Long integer 8-bit signed integer Short integer An unsigned integer An unsigned long integer An unsigned short integer
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C# strictly specifies a range and behavior for each value type Because of portability requirements, C# is uncompromising on this account For example, an int is the same in all execution environments There is no need to rewrite code to fit a specific platform Although strictly specifying the size of the value types may cause a small loss of performance in some environments, it is necessary in order to achieve portability
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NOTE In addition to the simple types, C# defines three other categories of value types These are
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enumerations, structures, and nullable types, all of which are described later in this book
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Integers
C# defines nine integer types: char, byte, sbyte, short, ushort, int, uint, long, and ulong However, the char type is primarily used for representing characters, and it is discussed later in this chapter The remaining eight integer types are used for numeric calculations Their bit-width and ranges are shown here:
Type byte sbyte short ushort int uint long ulong Width in Bits 8 8 16 16 32 32 64 64 Range 0 to 255 128 to 127 32,768 to 32,767 0 to 65,535 2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 0 to 4,294,967,295 9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615
3:
D a t a Ty p e s , L i t e r a l s , a n d Va r i a b l e s
As the table shows, C# defines both signed and unsigned versions of the various integer types The difference between signed and unsigned integers is in the way the high-order bit of the integer is interpreted If a signed integer is specified, then the C# compiler will generate code that assumes the high-order bit of an integer is to be used as a sign flag If the sign flag is 0, then the number is positive; if it is 1, then the number is negative Negative numbers are almost always represented using the two s complement approach In this method, all bits in the negative number are reversed, and then 1 is added to this number Signed integers are important for a great many algorithms, but they have only half the absolute magnitude of their unsigned relatives For example, as a short, here is 32,767: 01111111 11111111 For a signed value, if the high-order bit were set to 1, the number would then be interpreted as 1 (assuming the two s complement format) However, if you declared this to be a ushort, then when the high-order bit was set to 1, the number would become 65,535 Probably the most commonly used integer type is int Variables of type int are often employed to control loops, to index arrays, and for general-purpose integer math When you need an integer that has a range greater than int, you have many options If the value you want to store is unsigned, you can use uint For large signed values, use long For large unsigned values, use ulong For example, here is a program that computes the distance from the Earth to the sun, in inches Because this value is so large, the program uses a long variable to hold it
// Compute the distance from the Earth to the sun, in inches using System; class Inches { static void Main() { long inches; long miles; miles = 93000000; // 93,000,000 miles to the sun // 5,280 feet in a mile, 12 inches in a foot inches = miles * 5280 * 12; ConsoleWriteLine("Distance to the sun: " + inches + " inches"); } }
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