qr code generator api c# Collections, Enumerators, and Iterators in Visual C#.NET

Make QR Code in Visual C#.NET Collections, Enumerators, and Iterators

CHAPTER
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Collections, Enumerators, and Iterators
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his chapter discusses one of the most important parts of the NET Framework: collections In C#, a collection is a group of objects The NET Framework contains a large number of interfaces and classes that define and implement various types of collections Collections simplify many programming tasks because they provide off-theshelf solutions to several common, but sometimes tedious-to-develop, data structures For example, there are built-in collections that support dynamic arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, and hash tables Collections are a state-of-the-art technology that merits close attention by all C# programmers Originally, there were only non-generic collection classes However, the addition of generics in C# 20 coincided with the addition of many new generic classes and interfaces to the NET Framework The inclusion of the generic collections essentially doubled the number of collection classes and interfaces Thus, the Collections API is now quite large Although the generic and non-generic collections work in similar ways, there are some differences, and both are described in this chapter Also described in this chapter are two features that relate to collections: enumerators and iterators Both enumerators and iterators enable the contents of a class to be cycled through via a foreach loop
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The principal benefit of collections is that they standardize the way groups of objects are handled by your programs All collections are designed around a set of cleanly defined interfaces Several built-in implementations of these interfaces, such as ArrayList, Hashtable, Stack, and Queue, are provided, which you can use as-is You can also implement your own collection, but you will seldom need to The NET Framework supports four general types of collections: non-generic, specialized, bit based, and generic The non-generic collections implement several fundamental data structures, including a dynamic array, stack, and queue They also include dictionaries, in which you can store key/value pairs An essential point to understand about the non-generic collections is that they operate on data of type object
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Part II:
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Thus, they can be used to store any type of data, and different types of data can be mixed within the same collection Of course, because they store object references, they are not type-safe The non-generic collection classes and interfaces are in SystemCollections The specialized collections operate on a specific type of data or operate in a unique way For example, there are specialized collections for strings There are also specialized collections that use a singly linked list The specialized collections are declared in SystemCollectionsSpecialized The Collections API defines one bit-based collection called BitArray BitArray supports bitwise operations on bits, such as AND and XOR As such, it differs significantly in its capabilities from the other collections BitArray is declared in SystemCollections The generic collections provide generic implementations of several standard data structures, such as linked lists, stacks, queues, and dictionaries Because these collections are generic, they are type-safe This means that only items that are type-compatible with the type of the collection can be stored in a generic collection, thus eliminating accidental type mismatches Generic collections are declared in SystemCollectionsGeneric There are also several classes in the SystemCollectionsObjectModel namespace that support programmers who want to create their own generic collections Fundamental to all collections is the concept of an enumerator, which is supported by the non-generic interfaces IEnumerator and IEnumerable, and the generic interfaces IEnumerator<T> and IEnumerable<T> An enumerator provides a standardized way of accessing the elements within a collection, one at a time Thus, it enumerates the contents of a collection Because each collection must implement either a generic or non-generic form of IEnumerable, the elements of any collection class can be accessed through the methods defined by IEnumerator or IEnumerator<T> Therefore, with only small changes, the code that cycles through one type of collection can be used to cycle through another As a point of interest, the foreach loop uses the enumerator to cycle through the contents of a collection A feature related to an enumerator is the iterator It simplifies the process of creating classes, such as custom collections, that can be cycled through by a foreach loop Iterators are also described in this chapter One last thing: If you are familiar with C++, then you will find it helpful to know that the collection classes are similar in spirit to the Standard Template Library (STL) classes defined by C++ What a C++ programmer calls a container, a C# programmer calls a collection The same is true of Java If you are familiar with Java s Collections Framework, then you will have no trouble learning to use C# collections Because of the differences among the four types of collections non-generic, bit-based, specialized, and generic this chapter discusses each separately
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