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A fully qualified name used to create an explicit implementation
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As you can see, when the MyMeth( ) member of IMyIF is implemented, its complete name, including its interface name, is specified There are two reasons that you might need to create an explicit implementation of an interface member First, it is possible for a class to implement two interfaces, which both declare methods by the same name and type signature Qualifying the names with their interfaces removes the ambiguity from this situation Second, when you implement a method using its fully qualified name, you are providing an implementation that cannot be accessed through an object of the class Thus, an explicit implementation gives you a way to implement an interface method so that it is not a public member of the implementing class Let s look at an example of each The following program contains an interface called IEven, which defines two methods, IsEven( ) and IsOdd( ) These methods determine whether a number is even or odd MyClass then implements IEven When it does so, it implements IsOdd( ) explicitly
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// Explicitly implement an interface member using System; interface IEven { bool IsOdd(int x); bool IsEven(int x); } class MyClass : IEven { // Explicit implementation bool IEvenIsOdd(int x) { if((x%2) != 0) return true; else return false; }
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Explicitly implement IsOdd( )
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// Normal implementation public bool IsEven(int x) { IEven o = this; // Interface reference to invoking object return !oIsOdd(x); } } class Demo { static void Main() { MyClass ob = new MyClass(); bool result; result = obIsEven(4); if(result) ConsoleWriteLine("4 is even"); else ConsoleWriteLine("3 is odd"); // result = obIsOdd(); // Error, not exposed } }
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Since IsOdd( ) is implemented explicitly, it is not exposed as a public member of MyClass Instead, IsOdd( ) can be accessed only through an interface reference This is why it is invoked through o in the implementation for IsEven( ) Here is an example in which two interfaces are implemented and both interfaces declare a method called Meth( ) Explicit implementation is used to eliminate the ambiguity inherent in this situation
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// Use explicit implementation to remove ambiguity using System; interface IMyIF_A { int Meth(int x); } interface IMyIF_B { int Meth(int x); } // MyClass implements both interfaces class MyClass : IMyIF_A, IMyIF_B { IMyIF_A a_ob; IMyIF_B b_ob; // Explicitly implement the two Meth()s Explicit implementation removes the ambiguity int IMyIF_AMeth(int x) { return x + x; }
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The signatures for these two methods are the same
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9: Interfaces, Structures, and Enumerations
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int IMyIF_BMeth(int x) { return x * x; }
Explicit implementation removes the ambiguity
// Call Meth() through an interface reference public int MethA(int x){ a_ob = this; return a_obMeth(x); // calls IMyIF_A } public int MethB(int x){ b_ob = this; return b_obMeth(x); // calls IMyIF_B } } class FQIFNames { static void Main() { MyClass ob = new MyClass(); ConsoleWrite("Calling IMyIF_AMeth(): "); ConsoleWriteLine(obMethA(3)); ConsoleWrite("Calling IMyIF_BMeth(): "); ConsoleWriteLine(obMethB(3)); } }
The output from this program is shown here:
Calling IMyIF_AMeth(): 6 Calling IMyIF_BMeth(): 9
Looking at the program, first notice that Meth( ) has the same signature in both IMyIF_A and IMyIF_B Thus, when MyClass implements both of these interfaces, it explicitly implements each one separately, fully qualifying its name in the process Since the only way that an explicitly implemented method can be called is on an interface reference, MyClass creates two such references, one for IMyIF_A and one for IMyIF_B It then calls two of its own methods, which call the interface methods, thereby removing the ambiguity
Structures
As you know, classes are reference types This means that class objects are accessed through a reference This differs from the value types, which are accessed directly However, there can be times when it would be useful to be able to access an object directly, in the way that value types are One reason for this is efficiency Accessing class objects through a reference adds overhead onto every access It also consumes space For very small objects, this extra space
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