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Use a query method with the query syntax
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var ltAvg = from n in nums let x = numsAverage() where n < x select n;
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ConsoleWriteLine("The average is " + numsAverage()); ConsoleWriteLine("These values are less than the average:"); // Execute the query and display the results foreach(int i in ltAvg) ConsoleWriteLine(i); } }
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14: Introducing LINQ
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The output is shown here:
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The average is 56 These values are less than the average: 1 2 4 3
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Before moving on, there is one more concept that needs to be presented In LINQ, queries have two different modes of execution: immediate and deferred In general, a query defines a set of rules that are not actually executed until a foreach statement executes This is called deferred execution However, if you use one of the extension methods that produce a non-sequence result, then the query must be executed to obtain that result For example, consider the Count( ) method In order for Count( ) to return the number of elements in the sequence, the query must be executed, and this is done automatically when Count( ) is called In this case, immediate execution takes place, with the query being executed automatically in order to obtain the result Therefore, even though you don t explicitly use the query in a foreach loop, the query is still executed Here is a simple example It obtains the number of positive elements in the sequence
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// Use immediate execution using System; using SystemLinq; class ImmediateExec { static void Main() { int[] nums = { 1, -2, 3, 0, -4, 5 };
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Deferred vs Immediate Query Execution
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// Create a query that obtains the number of positive // values in nums int len = (from n in nums This query executes immediately, where n > 0 returning the count select n)Count(); ConsoleWriteLine("The number of positive values in nums: " + len); } }
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The output is shown here:
The number of positive values in nums: 3
In the program, notice that no explicit foreach loop is specified Instead, the query automatically executes because of the call to Count( )
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As a point of interest, the query in the preceding program could also have been written like this:
var posNums = from n in nums where n > 0 select n; int len = posNumsCount(); // query executes here
In this case, Count( ) is called on the query variable At that point, the query is executed to obtain the count
Ask the Expert
Q: A:
Why does C# have two ways of creating queries, the query syntax and the query methods Actually, aside from the syntax involved, it really only has one way Why Because the query syntax is compiled into calls to the query methods! Thus, when you write something like:
where x < 10
the compiler translates it into
Where(x => x < 10)
Thus, the two approaches to creating a query ultimately lead to the same place This, then, leads to a second question: Which approach should be used in a C# program In general, you will want to use the query syntax It is cleaner and is fully integrated into the C# language
A Closer Look at Extension Methods
Extension methods provide a means by which functionality can be added to a class without using the normal inheritance mechanism Although you won t often create your own extension methods (because the inheritance mechanism offers a better solution in many cases), it is still important that you understand how they work because of their integral importance to LINQ An extension method is a static method that must be contained within a static, non-generic class The type of its first parameter determines the type of objects on which the extension method can be called Furthermore, the first parameter must be modified by this The object on which the method is invoked is passed automatically to the first parameter It is not explicitly passed in the argument list A key point is that even though an extension method is declared static, it can still be called on an object, just as if it were an instance method
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