Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click here for terms of use in Visual Studio .NET

Generate QR Code JIS X 0510 in Visual Studio .NET Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click here for terms of use

Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click here for terms of use
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Battery Discharging and Charging Cycle
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As you already know from 8, batteries behave differently during discharging and charging two entirely different chemical processes are taking place Batteries also behave differently at different stages of the charging cycle Let s start with a look at an actual battery, then look at the discharging and charging cycle specifics
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What You Can Learn from a Battery Cycle-Life Test
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Figure 9-1 shows cycle-life test results for the Trojan 27TMH deep-cycle lead-acid battery we looked at in 8 Two parameters are being monitored versus number of cycles: the minutes at 25 amps capacity, and the end of charge current The capacity parameter measurement is an actual version of the graph you saw in Figure 8-2 There are more wiggles in the real battery s data curve, but the resemblance between the two graphs is striking, and there should be no revelations for you here This battery didn t actually fail at the end of 358 cycles; that s just a name assigned (by a battery test engineer) to the point at which this battery dropped below 50 percent of its rated capacity The end of charge current (EOCC) might be new to you Notice it s quite low early in the battery s cycle-life (around one amp) but rises steadily until at some point around mid-life it shoots up to its limit value (around 20 amps in this graph) What does this mean to you It means that a battery s charging current fluctuates widely over its lifetime It means that you can quickly kill a new battery that only requires a small amount of current to kick in its charging cycle by placing an unregulated voltage source without any current control across it
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Figure 9-1 Cycle-life test results for T rojan 27TMH deep-cycle lead-acid batter y
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It means you have to crank up the voltage and current when charging a more mature battery Both of these mean that you cannot plug a charger into your battery, set it, and forget it because a battery s charging needs also change from cycle to cycle and with temperature and depth of discharge Sealed lead-acid batteries, with a small amount of calcium added to eliminate the need for rewatering, don t exhibit this characteristic; their EOCC is relatively flat so you can be a little more tolerant with them (They are also more expensive you pay your maintenance costs up front)
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Battery Discharging Cycle
Let s observe the discharge cycle first, to contrast what is happening to the parameters with what goes on during charging Capacity, cell voltage, and specific gravity all decrease with time as you discharge a battery Figure 9-2 shows how these key parameters change (a standard temperature of 78 degrees F is presumed): Ampere-Hours The measure of the battery s capacity and percent state-ofcharge (the area under the line in this case) are shown decreasing linearly versus time from its full charge to its full discharge value Cell Voltage Cell voltage predictably declines from its nominal 21-volt fully charged value to its fully discharged value of 175 volts Specific Gravity Specific gravity decreases linearly (directly with the battery s discharging ampere-hour rate) from its full charge to its full discharge value
Battery Charging Cycle
Battery charging is the reverse of discharging Figure 9-2 again shows you how the key parameters change: Ampere-Hours This is the opposite of the discharging case, except that you have to put back slightly more than you took out (typically 105 to 115 percent more) because of losses, heating, etc The area under the line increases linearly versus time from its fully discharged value to its fully charged value Specific Gravity Specific gravity increases wildly over time as a battery is charging, so making specific gravity measurements during the charging cycle is not a good idea At the early part of the charging cycle, specific gravity increases slowly because the charging chemical reaction process is just starting Specific gravity increases rapidly as the sulfuric acid concentration builds, and gassing near the end of the cycle contributes to its rise Cell Voltage Voltage also increases wildly over time as a battery is charging, so making voltage measurements during the charging cycle is not a good idea either Notice cell voltage jumps up immediately to its natural 21-volt value; slowly increases until 80 percent state-of-charge (approximately 235 volts); increases rapidly until 90 percent state-of-charge (approximately 25 volts); and then builds slowly to its full charging value of 258 volts
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