Weight and Climbing in .NET

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Weight and Climbing
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When you go hill climbing, you add another force: Fh 5 Wsin f where Fh is hill-climbing force, W is vehicle weight in pounds, and f is angle of incline as shown in Figure 5-2 The degree of the incline the way hills or inclines are commonly referred to is different from the angle of the incline, but Figure 5-2 should clear up any confusion for you Notice that sin f varies from 0 at no incline (no effect) to 1 at 90 degrees; in other words, the full weight of the vehicle is trying to pull it back down the incline Again, weight is directly involved, acted upon this time by the steepness of the hill Degree of incline 5 1% 5 1 foot 100 feet 5 Rise Run
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Angle of incline, O 5 Arc tan Rise 5 Arc tan 001 5 about 0 degrees 34 minutes Run
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Figure 5-2
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Angle of incline defined
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Degree of incline 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 8% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45%
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Chassis and Design
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Incline angle O 0 34' 1 9' 1 43' 2 17' 2 52' 3 26' 4 34' 5 43' 8 32' 11 19' 14 2' 16 42' 19 17' 21 48' 24 14'
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sin O 000989 002007 002996 004013 005001 005989 007062 009961 014838 019623 024249 028736 033024 037137 041045
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Fh (in pounds) 99 201 296 401 500 599 796 996 1484 1962 2425 2874 3302 3714 4105
a (in mph/sec)
2 3 4 5 6
Table 5-2 Hill-Climbing F orce F h for 15 Different V alues of Incline
Table 5-2 shows the hill-climbing force Fh, for 15 different incline values for a vehicle weight of 1,000 lbs Notice that the tractive force required for acceleration of 1 mph/sec equals that required for hill-climbing of a 5 percent incline, 2 mph/sec for 10 percent incline, etc, on up through a 30 percent incline This handy relationship will be used later in the design section To use Table 5-2 with your EV, multiply by the ratio of your vehicle weight For example, the 3,800-lb Ford Ranger pickup truck of 10 going up a 10 percent incline would require 38 3 996 5 3785 lbs
Weight Affects Speed
Although speed also involves other factors, it s definitely related to weight Horsepower and torque are related to speed per equation 3: hp 5 FV/550 where hp is motor horsepower, F is force in pounds, and V is speed in ft/sec Armed with this information, Newton s Second Law equation can be rearranged as a 5 (1/M) F and because M 5 W/g (10) and F 5 (550 3 hp)/V, they can be substituted to yield a 5 550(g/V)(hp/W) Finally, a and V can be interchanged to give V 5 550(g/a)(hp/W) where V is the vehicle speed in ft/sec, W is the vehicle weight in pounds, g is the gravitational constant 322 ft/sec2, and the other factors you ve already met For any
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given acceleration, as weight goes up, speed goes down because they are inversely proportional
Weight Affects Range
Distance is simply speed multiplied by time: D 5 Vt; therefore D 5 550(g/a)(hp/W)t So weight again enters the picture For any fixed amount of energy you are carrying onboard your vehicle, you will go farther if you take longer (drive at a slower speed) or carry less weight You already encountered the practical results of this trade-off in Figure 4-14 of 4 Besides the primary task of eliminating all unnecessary weight, there are two other important weight-related factors to keep in mind when doing EV conversions: front-torear weight distribution, and the 30 percent rule
Remove the Weight but Keep Your Balance
Always focus on keeping your vehicle s front-to-rear weight distribution intact and not exceeding its total chassis and front/rear axle weight loading specifications Figure 5-3 shows the magnitude of your problem for a Ford Ranger pickup truck similar to the one used in 10 s conversion You have pulled out 600 lbs in engine, fuel, exhaust, emission, ignition starter, and heating/cooling systems But you re going to be putting 1,400 lbs back in, including 1,200 lbs of batteries (20 at about 60 lbs each) How do you handle it Table 5-3 provides the answers Notice the first row shows the 3,000-lb curb weight normally distributed 60 percent front (1,800 lbs) and 40 percent rear (1,200 lbs) with a 1,200-lb payload capacity The second row shows that most of the weight
Figure 5-3
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