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DC Motors in General
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If you could support the conductor shown in Figure 6-1 so that it could rotate in the magnetic field, you would create the condition shown in the upper part of Figure 6-2
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DC motor s basics obtaining torque from mo ving conductor s
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Now the current through the conductor (which flows into the page you re seeing the back of the arrow) would exert a force that would tend to rotate it in the clockwise direction The magnitude of the torque would be given by T 5 Fr where T is torque in foot-pounds, F is force in pounds, and r is the distance measured perpendicularly from the direction of F to the center of rotation in feet Now you have a motor design on paper You need to take some steps to make it real First you need to make it more force-full Since the force varies with the length of the conductor, if you make a coil of wire, as shown in the upper right of Figure 6-2, twice as much length is cutting the lines of flux The force generated on the right-hand wire is downward and the force generated on the left-hand wire is upward; they would assist one another in producing rotation and result in twice the torque To further assist rotation, you add the commutator and brushes, shown in the middle of Figure 6-2 This arrangement allows you to power your motor from a constant supply of direct current (DC) voltage Switching the polarity of the coils when they reach the 12 o clock or 6 o clock position (minimum flux point) guarantees that current will always flow in through brush number 2 and out through brush number 1, thus always producing upward force on the left-hand conductor and downward force on the right-hand conductor, and creating a constant rotation To further increase the motor s torque abilities, you add additional coils as shown at the bottom of Figure 6-2 In reality, each coil can have many windings, and you can
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arrange commutator segments to match the number of coils so that you have the force on each of these coils acting in unison with the force on all the other coils
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DC Motors in the Real World
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Now it s time you met real-world DC motors their construction, definitions, and efficiency Let s start by looking at their components
Armature
The armature is the main current-carrying part of a motor that normally rotates (brushless motors tend to blur this distinction) and produces torque via the action of current flow in its coils It also holds the coils in place, and provides a low reluctance path to the flux (Reluctance is defined as (H 3 1)/4 and measured in ampere-turns per lines of flux) The armature usually consists of a shaft surrounded by laminated sheet steel pieces called the armature core The laminations reduce eddy current losses; steel is replaced by more efficient metals in newer designs There are grooves or slots parallel to the shaft around the outside of the core; the sides of the coils are placed into these slots The coils (each with many turns of wire) are placed so that one side is under the north pole and the other is under the south pole; adjacent coils are placed in adjacent slots, as shown at the bottom of Figure 6-2 The end of one coil is connected to the beginning of the next coil so that the total force then becomes the sum of the forces generated on each coil
Commutator
The commutator is the smart part of the motor that permits constant rotation by reversing the direction of current in the windings each time they reach the minimum flux point This piece is basically a switch It commutates the voltage from one polarity to the opposite Since the motor rotor is spinning and has momentum, the switching process repeats itself in a pre-ordained manner The alternating magnetic poles continue to provide the push to overcome losses (friction, windage, and heating) to reach a terminal speed Under load, the motor behaves a bit differently, but the load causes more current to be drawn Physically, it s a part of the armature (typically located near one end of the shaft) that appears as a ring split into segments surrounding the shaft These segments are insulated from one another and the shaft In the real world, electromagnets (recall your toolbox nail with a few turns of insulated copper wire wrapped around it) are customarily used instead of the permanent magnets you saw in Figure 6-1 and Figure 6-2 (Permanent magnet motors are, in fact, used, and you ll be formally introduced to them and their advantages later in this section) In a real motor the lines of flux are produced by an electromagnet created by winding turns of wire around its poles or pole pieces A pole is normally built up of laminated sheet steel pieces, which reduce eddy current losses; as with armatures, steel has been replaced by more efficient metals in the newer models The pole pieces are usually curved where they surround the armature to produce a more uniform magnetic field The turns of copper wire around the poles are called the field windings
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