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Motor Selection and Performance
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U I L D I N G a robot requires that you make many decisions from the type of sensors you ll use to the color you ll paint it Some of these decisions are trivial, while others will make or break your robot One decision in the make-or-break category is motors not just deciding which ones you ll use, but determining how you ll optimize their performance Most robots use the same class of motor the permanent magnet direct current (PMDC) motor These commonly used motors are fairly low in cost and relatively easy to control Other types of electric motors are available, such as series-wound field DC motors, stepper motors, and alternating current (AC) motors, but this book will discuss only PMDC -type motors If you want to learn more about other types of motors, consult your local library or the Internet for that information Some combat robots use internal combustion motors, but they are more commonly used to power weapons than to drive the robots, largely because the internal combustion engine rotates only in one direction If you are using an internal combustion engine to drive the robot, your robot will require a transmission that can switch into reverse or use a hydraulic motor drive system With electric motors, however, the direction of the robot can be reversed without a transmission Many combat robots combine the two, using electric motors for driving the robot system and internal combustion motors for driving the weapons Another use for internal combustion engines is to drive a hydraulic pump that drives the robot and/or operates the weapons Since most robots use PMDC motors, most of the discussion in this chapter will be focused on electric motors At the end of this chapter is a short discussion of internal combustion engines
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Because the robot s speed, pushing capability, and power requirements are directly related to the motor performance, one of the most important things to understand as you design your new robot is how the motors will perform In most robot designs, the motors place the greatest constraints on the design
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Motor Selection and Performance
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Direct current (DC) motors have two unique characteristics: the motor speed is proportional to the voltage applied to the motor, and the output torque (that is, the force producing rotation) from the motor is proportional to the amount of current the motor is drawing from the batteries In other words, the more voltage you supply to the motor, the faster it will go; and the more torque you apply to the motor, the more current it will draw Equations 1 and 2 show these simple relationships:
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The units of Kv are RPM per volt and Kt are oz-in per amp (or in-lb per amp) Torque is in oz-in and RPM is revolutions per minute Kv is known as the motorspeed constant, and Kt is known as the motor-torque constant These equations apply to the ideal motor In reality, certain inefficiencies exist in all motors that alter these relationships Equation 1 shows that the motor speed is not affected by the applied torque on the motor But we all know through experience that the motor speed is affected by the applied motor torque that is, they slow down All motors have a unique amount of internal resistance that results in a voltage loss inside the motor Thus, the net voltage the motor sees from the batteries is proportionally reduced by the current flowing through the motor Equation 3 shows the effective voltage that the motor actually uses Equation 4 shows the effective motor speed
rpm = K vVmotor = K v (Vin Iin R)
Where Vin is the battery voltage in volts, Iin is the current draw from the motor in amps, R is the internal resistance of the motor in ohms, and Vmotor is the effective motor voltage in volts It can easily be seen in Equation 4 that as the current increases (by increasing the applied torque), the net voltage decreases, thus decreasing the motor speed But speed is still proportional to the applied voltage to the motor With all motors, a minimum amount of energy is needed just to get the motor to start turning This energy has to overcome several internal frictional losses A minimum amount of current is required to start the motor turning Once this threshold is reached, the motor starts spinning and it will rapidly jump up to the maximum speed based on the applied voltage When nothing is attached to the output shaft, this condition is known as the no-load speed and this current is known as the no-load current Equation 5 shows the actual torque as a function of the current draw, where I0 is the no-load current in amps Note that the motor delivers no torque at the no-load condition Another interesting thing to note here is
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