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Most combat robots use a method known as pulse-width modulation (PWM) for controlling motor speed A PWM control fools the motor into thinking it s being
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fed a variable voltage by switching the motor power on and off many times per second The frequency of the switching is usually held constant while the percentage of time the switch is on or off is used to vary the desired output voltage Figure 7-11 shows a typical PWM signal The percent of the time the switch is on is known as the duty cycle The duty cycle is defined as the on time, ton, divided by the sum of the on time and the off time, toff See Equation 1 The PWM frequency is the inverse of the time for one complete on-off cycle
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The duty cycle is generally expressed as a percentage For 10-percent duty cycle, the switch will be on 10 percent of the time and off the other 90 percent of the time Fifty percent duty cycle will have the switch on half the time and off half the time, and with 100-percent duty cycle, the switch will be on all the time Because the windings inside the motor act like an inductor, when the power is cut off to the motor, the magnetic fields inside the windings collapse The changing magnetic field induces a current through the windings for a short period of time When a source voltage (the battery voltage, for example) is pulsed to the motor, the motor will, in effect, time average that voltage When the frequency of the pulsed voltage to the motor is high enough, the voltage time average will be proportional to the duty cycle Thus, the average voltage is equivalent to the source voltage multiplied by the duty cycle To produce the effect of a smooth output voltage, the PWM switch must be switching thousands of times per second This is much too fast for any mechanical relay to function PWM applications with relays have been attempted, with a switching speed of about 10 times per second, but this gives poor control and quickly destroys the relay contacts Power switching at the speed required for good PWM control requires a high-speed, high-power transistor Transistors act like switches or simple relays They are reliable and can switch thousands to millions of times per second Most transistors cannot handle the high currents that relays and solenoids can handle without burning up The two most popular types of transistors that are designed for high-powered applications
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are called the Field Effect Transistor (FET) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) For the following discussions, FET will be used as a generic term to represent both MOSFETs and FETs
Field Effect Transistor
An FET works something like a semiconductor implementation of a relay An FET has two leads, known as the source and the drain, connected to a channel of semiconductor material The composition of the material is such that current cannot normally flow through it A third lead, called the gate, is connected to a conductive electrode that lies on top of the semiconductor junction but is insulated from it by a thin non-conducting layer When voltage is applied to the third electrode, it creates an electric field that rearranges the electrons in the semiconductor junction With the field present, current is able to flow between the source and drain pins When the gate is driven to a low voltage, the electric field reverses and current is unable to flow The FET acts as a voltage-controlled switch, where an applied voltage to the gate will control the current flow between the drain and source The layer of insulation between the gate and the source/drain channel must be very thin for sufficient field strength to reach from the gate into the semiconductor channel This thinness makes the FET vulnerable to being damaged by too high a voltage If the voltage between either the drain or source and the gate exceeds the breakdown voltage of the insulation layer, it will punch a hole through the layer and short the gate to the motor or battery circuit This can be caused by connecting the FET up to too high a voltage, or simply by zapping the FET circuit with static electricity You should be careful when handling FETs and attached electronics to avoid accidentally discharging static electricity into them It is also good practice to use FETs with a voltage rating of twice the battery voltage you wish to run your motors on to avoid the possibility of inductive spikes momentarily exceeding the FET breakdown rating When using an FET as a high-current PWM switch, it is important that you switch the gate from the off voltage to the on voltage as quickly as possible When at an intermediary state, the FET will act as a resistor, conducting current inefficiently and generating heat Commercial PWM FET-based controllers use specialized high-current driver chips to slam the FET gates from low to high voltage and back as quickly as possible, minimizing the time spent in the lousy intermediary state The power that can be switched by an FET is fundamentally limited by heat buildup Even when fully in the on state, an FET has a slight resistance Heat buildup in the FET is proportional to the resistance of the semiconductor channel times the square of the current flowing through it The resistance of the semiconductor channel increases with its temperature so once an FET begins to overheat, its efficiency will drop; and if the heat cannot be sufficiently carried away by the environment, it will generate more and more heat until it self-destructs This is known as thermal runaway A FET s power-switching capacity can be improved by removing
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